CJA1

and the various specialties in criminal justice
Describe nonpro�t and for-pro�t agencies

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In an era of globalization accompanied by complexity,
ambiguity, rapid change, and diversity, managing any or‐
ganization or agency is a di�cult task. Yet, good manage‐
ment is critical to the survival of an organization or
agency. In fact, Hanson (1986) has suggested that the
ability to manage is more strongly related to a �rm’s prof‐
itability than any other factor. Managers are constantly
challenged with making decisions, formulating goals,
creating a mission, enacting policies and procedures, and
uniting individuals in the organization so that comple‐
tion of all of these and other related tasks can be accom‐
plished. Despite the fact that management permeates ev‐
erything that an organization does, what the management
actually is, is not always clearly de�ned or identi�ed.

Management consists of many individuals in an organi‐
zation at varying levels and ranks, often classi�ed as
lower management, middle management, and upper
management. Of course, people are familiar with the
terms chief executive o�cer, director, president, chief oper‐
ating o�cer, and so on. These are automatically assumed
to be titles that indicate the ranks of management. We
also assume that those holding the management roles
work to provide the organizational mission by making

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p

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Washington DC | Melbourne

CHAPTER ONE DEFINING
MANAGEMENT AND
ORGANIZATION: LEARNING
OBJECTIVES

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this chapter, students should
be able to do the following:

De�ne management, organization, and
leadership
List and discuss criminal justice organizations
and the various specialties in criminal justice
Describe nonpro�t and for-pro�t agencies

In an era of globalization accompanied by complexity,
ambiguity, rapid change, and diversity, managing any or‐

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management. Of course, people are familiar with the
terms chief executive o�cer, director, president, chief oper‐
ating o�cer, and so on. These are automatically assumed
to be titles that indicate the ranks of management. We
also assume that those holding the management roles
work to provide the organizational mission by making
decisions and setting goals for those not designated as
management. But are these obvious assumptions? Hecht
(1980) asserts, “Many a person who carries the title of
manager is not really a manager” (p. 1). What this means
is that people on the front lines may make decisions, for‐
mulate procedures, and have input into the mission and
long-term goals of the organization. Take police o�cers,
for example. One o�cer on patrol may consider a driver
as speeding if he or she is driving at �ve or more miles
over the posted speed limit. Another o�cer may not con‐
sider a driver to be speeding unless he or she is 10 miles
or more over the posted speed limit. Even though the law
says that the speed limit is 55 miles per hour, and the po‐
lice agency is expected to ticket drivers driving in excess
of the posted speed limit, a patrol o�cer may practice a
policy of �ve to ten miles over the speed limit. This al‐
lows the o�cer to make decisions on enforcement of the
law and in�uence the mission of the organization. In
other words, the police o�cer is acting as a manager.
Individuals employed in positions considered to be at the
second or third level may also have input or titles that in‐
dicate they are managers within the organization. Does

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lows the o�cer to make decisions on enforcement of the
law and in�uence the mission of the organization. In
other words, the police o�cer is acting as a manager.
Individuals employed in positions considered to be at the
second or third level may also have input or titles that in‐
dicate they are managers within the organization. Does
this make them management? According to Hecht,
“Management is an activity,” and managers are “charged
with a number of people working at the task of getting
some activity accomplished within a set period of time”
(p. 1). Research de�ning management has been ongoing;
to date, there is still not a clear de�nition of management
for all organizations. This means that each organization
faces the unique task of determining how it will be man‐
aged and by whom.

This chapter will investigate the de�nition of manage‐
ment as well as tasks commonly associated with manag‐
ing an organization. The term organization will be de‐
�ned, and key aspects of organizational structures in
nonpro�t and for-pro�t agencies will be discussed.
Leadership and how leaders work within organizations
are discussed as well. As this book pertains to manage‐
ment in criminal justice, a brief summary of criminal jus‐
tice agencies and their management structures is also
provided in this chapter. Each chapter in the text—this
one included—ends with a �ctional case study and sum‐
mary discussion. The case studies provide scenarios

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are discussed as well. As this book pertains to manage‐
ment in criminal justice, a brief summary of criminal jus‐
tice agencies and their management structures is also
provided in this chapter. Each chapter in the text—this
one included—ends with a �ctional case study and sum‐
mary discussion. The case studies provide scenarios
likely to be encountered in real life. Although the case
studies may resemble reality, they are based on �ctitious
names, places, and occurrences. There are questions at
the end of each case study. There are no right or wrong
answers to these questions. Instead, the intent is to allow
for application and processing of the information learned
in the chapter.

De�ning Management

As discussed earlier, management is a di�cult term to de‐
�ne. It is easier to identify what a manager does or is sup‐
posed to do than to de�ne the actual term. If one were to
search for the term management on the Internet, words
such as supervising, directing, managing, measuring results,
and so on would display, which are all action-oriented
terms. Dwan (2003) identi�es management as planning
goals and specifying the purpose of the agency; organiz‐
ing people, �nances, resources, and activities; sta�ng,
training, and socializing employees; leading the organiza‐
tion and the sta�; and controlling, monitoring, and sanc‐
tioning when needed (p. 44). On closer scrutiny, one will

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terms. Dwan (2003) identi�es management as planning
goals and specifying the purpose of the agency; organiz‐
ing people, �nances, resources, and activities; sta�ng,
training, and socializing employees; leading the organiza‐
tion and the sta�; and controlling, monitoring, and sanc‐
tioning when needed (p. 44). On closer scrutiny, one will
�nd that both the explanation proposed by Dwan and the
words displayed on the Internet identify management
with tasks or responsibilities, while neither provides an
exact de�nition.

Looking in another direction, one may �nd that manage‐
ment has been de�ned through theory such as scienti�c
management, where those in charge of an organization
are to maximize productivity through selection, training,
and planning of tasks and employees. Management the‐
ory has also focused on Fayol’s (1949) �ve functions of
management—planning, organizing, commanding, coor‐
dinating, and providing feedback—and Weber’s (1947)
bureaucratic management, where there is a clear division
of labor, rules, and procedures. There are also those who
see management as a process to be studied and analyzed
through cases so that correct techniques can be taught to
others (Dale, 1960). There is the human relations ap‐
proach that perceives management as closely tied to soci‐
ology and the various social systems in society (Barnard,
1938; March & Simon, 1958), emphasizing a manager’s
understanding of workers as sociopsychological beings

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through cases so that correct techniques can be taught to
others (Dale, 1960). There is the human relations ap‐
proach that perceives management as closely tied to soci‐
ology and the various social systems in society (Barnard,
1938; March & Simon, 1958), emphasizing a manager’s
understanding of workers as sociopsychological beings
who need to be motivated (Tannenbaum, Weschler, &
Massarik, 1961). Management has also been discussed
from both decision-making and mathematical perspec‐
tives (Koontz, 1961). Although most of these will be ad‐
dressed in detail in later chapters, it is important to note
that they appear to be the roles of management and not
true de�nitions of what it is to manage.

Career Highlight Box

An Introduction

Students are often interested in the types of jobs
available in criminal justice, but they are not always
given the chance to explore the various options dur‐
ing their coursework. Since this book discusses a va‐
riety of criminal justice agencies and the adminis‐
tration and management of those agencies, it makes
sense to expose students to di�erent career oppor‐
tunities that may be available in those organiza‐
tions. In each of the following chapters, look for
“Career Highlight” boxes which will provide infor21% of sample

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and concerns.

Koontz (1961) stated, “Most people would agree that
[management] means getting things done through and
with people” (p. 17). Management, as viewed in this book,
is best de�ned within groups. It is an ongoing process
that works toward achieving organizational goals. It may
consist of multiple organizational layers, o�ces, people,
positions, and so on. In other words, management is an
ongoing process of getting things done through a variety
of people with the least amount of e�ort, expense, and
waste, ultimately resulting in the achievement of organi‐
zational goals (Moore, 1964).

Identifying an Organization

Blau and Scott (1962) de�ned an organization by using
categories. The �rst category consists of the owners or
managers of the organization, and the second consists of
the members of the rank and �le. Third are the clients, or
what Blau and Scott referred to as the people who are out‐
side the organization but have regular contact with it.
Fourth is the public at large or the members of society in
which the organization operates. They suggest that orga‐
nizations bene�t someone—either the management, the
membership, the client, or the commonwealth. This de�‐
nition �ts well with private enterprise in that the man‐
agers or shareholders may bene�t greatly from the22% of sample

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sion to focus the activities of an organization. The values
are determined by the culture of the organization. In
policing, the culture tends to revolve around providing
services, controlling crime, and increasing public safety.
There are strict policies and procedures to be followed in
carrying out the activities of the policing agency. O�cers’
positions are well de�ned, and there is a clearly identi�ed
hierarchy in the organization. Employees are expected to
be honest and show integrity while completing their
tasks. Using the Atlanta Police Department’s website as
an example, one can see that the department values pro‐
fessionalism, integrity, commitment, and courage (no
date).

Last, organizations use strategic goals. Members will work
toward several organizational goals to accomplish the
agency’s mission. The goals, also known as objectives, are
the main concerns of the organization. They are gener‐
ally set by the administration and passed through formal
and informal communication to employees. According to
Hecht (1980), objectives should �lter all the way to the
bottom of the agency, with each unit or department es‐
tablishing and working on its own unit goals while keep‐
ing the larger organizational strategic goals in mind (p.
91). Employees may also have personal goals set for
themselves. It is hoped that the personal goals do not
con�ict with the organizational goals. If this occurs, the
employee may be unsuccessful within the agency, or the

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However, if there are few levels of authority between the
top managers and the line sta� (those performing the ev‐
eryday tasks or jobs), the organization is seen as decen‐
tralized. Decentralized organizations allow for lower-level
sta� to make decisions on policies or procedures that di‐
rectly a�ect the accomplishment of tasks and goals
(Ivancevich et al., 1989). Delegation of authority is fore‐
most in decentralized organizations. The structure of or‐
ganizations and the impact centralization or decentral‐
ization has on how organizations function and accom‐
plish goals will be discussed in greater detail in Chapter
2. For now, it’s important to realize that the structure of
an organization determines how much autonomy, or the
power to self-govern, workers have within that organiza‐
tion and may in�uence their individual goal setting and
achievement.

The chain of command within an organization can also
determine structure. A chain of command is the vertical
line of authority that de�nes who supervises whom in an
organization. If an organization has a well-de�ned, un‐
yielding chain of command, the organization is formal‐
ized. Formal organizations are bureaucratic and have
clearly de�ned rules, procedures, and policies. Those at
the higher levels of the chain have the authority and
power to issue commands to those at the lower level.
Police departments use formal chains of command, with
street o�cers reporting to sergeants, who report to lieu‐

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and informal communication to employees. According to
Hecht (1980), objectives should �lter all the way to the
bottom of the agency, with each unit or department es‐
tablishing and working on its own unit goals while keep‐
ing the larger organizational strategic goals in mind (p.
91). Employees may also have personal goals set for
themselves. It is hoped that the personal goals do not
con�ict with the organizational goals. If this occurs, the
employee may be unsuccessful within the agency, or the
agency’s accomplishment of larger organizational and
unit goals may be blocked. The administration at that
point must step in and restate the organizational strate‐
gic goals or retrain or terminate the employee.

The strategic goals will have “two features: a description
of an intended future state and action towards achieving
that future state” (Day & Tosey, 2011, p. 517). The struc‐
ture and culture of the organization are reiterated in the
strategic goals. Likewise, the strategic goals of an agency
provide employees the opportunity to align themselves
and their personal goals with the agency’s stated goals.
Citizens in the community can determine whether an
agency is accomplishing the mission by assessing the
statements made in the strategic goals and the outputs
delivered by the department. Doran (1981) and Locke
and Latham (2002) claim that the more speci�c, measur‐
able, achievable, realistic, and time-speci�c (SMART) the
agency’s goals are, the easier it is for others to determine

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agency is accomplishing the mission by assessing the
statements made in the strategic goals and the outputs
delivered by the department. Doran (1981) and Locke
and Latham (2002) claim that the more speci�c, measur‐
able, achievable, realistic, and time-speci�c (SMART) the
agency’s goals are, the easier it is for others to determine
if an agency has actually met the strategic goals.

The better organized an organization is, the better it will
be able to accomplish its goals. The term organized can re‐
late to structure. Organizations are structured vertically
and horizontally. They contain departments, units, spe‐
cializations, work groups, jobs, and so on.

The structure is typically determined by how formal the
organization is. If there is a rigid hierarchy, or what some
refer to as bureaucracy, the organization is seen as cen‐
tralized. Centralized organizations house authority posi‐
tions at the top of the hierarchy in the upper levels of the
administration. Managers are responsible for most deci‐
sions in centralized organizations, and communication is
sent from management to lower-level sta� on how to
perform tasks and on changes in policy or procedure.
However, if there are few levels of authority between the
top managers and the line sta� (those performing the ev‐
eryday tasks or jobs), the organization is seen as decen‐
tralized. Decentralized organizations allow for lower-level
sta� to make decisions on policies or procedures that di‐
rectly a�ect the accomplishment of tasks and goals

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systems have their own boundaries, missions, and tasks,
as well as their own inputs, outputs, processes, and feed‐
back (McNamara, 2007). Detective units in police depart‐
ments can be thought of as subsystems. The detectives’
unit has its own mission, goals, and values, yet the detec‐
tives are working to accomplish the larger policing goals
of providing services, identifying crime, and working
with and protecting the public.

Groups and individual employees within an organization
can also be thought of as systems with common mis‐
sions, values, goals, inputs, outputs, processes, and so on.
The organization can be thought of as multiple systems,
all operating within multiple systems for one or more
identi�ed strategic goal(s). A simple way of considering
the multiple systems approach is to think of a university
campus. The individual classes o�ered by the
Department of Criminal Justice have missions, goals, and
values identi�ed in each syllabus as course objectives and
course descriptions. The courses are o�ered each semes‐
ter by a department that also has a mission, goals, and
values shared by the faculty who teach criminal justice
and the students majoring in criminal justice. The
Department of Criminal Justice is situated in a college or
school (often called the School of Social Sciences) along
with other departments with similar disciplines, and
they share a mission and common goals and values set by
the dean. Finally, these three systems operate within the

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g
riety of criminal justice agencies and the adminis‐
tration and management of those agencies, it makes
sense to expose students to di�erent career oppor‐
tunities that may be available in those organiza‐
tions. In each of the following chapters, look for
“Career Highlight” boxes, which will provide infor‐
mation concerning speci�c occupations, typical du‐
ties, pay scales, and job requirements within or re‐
lated to the criminal justice system. Keep in mind
that di�erent jurisdictions have distinct require‐
ments, so this is only a small representation of the
possibilities and occupations available. In addition,
students are encouraged to examine the job outlook
and prospects sections in each job description with
a critical eye, since demands for workers with spe‐
ci�c skill sets change regularly. The authors suggest
that students discuss career options with faculty
and advisors as they narrow down their profes‐
sional goals. Students are also encouraged to con‐
tact individuals currently working in the �eld of
criminal justice to discuss opportunities, interests,
and concerns.

Koontz (1961) stated, “Most people would agree that
[management] means getting things done through and
with people” (p. 17). Management, as viewed in this book,
is best de�ned within groups. It is an ongoing process

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Fourth is the public at large or the members of society in
which the organization operates. They suggest that orga‐
nizations bene�t someone—either the management, the
membership, the client, or the commonwealth. This de�‐
nition �ts well with private enterprise in that the man‐
agers or shareholders may bene�t greatly from the
organization’s business and sales. This de�nition also �ts
well with criminal justice since the victim and the com‐
monwealth (public) may bene�t when an o�ender is ar‐
rested and placed in jail. In criminal justice, the typical
organization is focused on identifying, deterring, pre‐
venting, and processing crime and criminal acts. It is ser‐
vice based. The hope of achieving goals and objectives is
the same as that found in private enterprise, but the
functions and activities are in contrast to private enter‐
prise or for-pro�t organizations.

Members of an organization usually share common vi‐
sions, missions, values, and strategic goals. A vision is
how individuals imagine the goals of the organization
will be accomplished. Each person will have a particular
perception of how the organization functions. So long as
the organization is working according to the vision, peo‐
ple perceive the organization as going well. The mission is
the overall purpose of the organization and is used to
help describe organizations to those outside of it, such as
community members. The mission may be a statement
or a list of goals to be accomplished (Ivancevich,

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g p
the identi�ed goals will be accomplished. The outputs are
the tangible results (e.g., products, services, or jobs; or in
the case of criminal justice, lowered crime rates, better
protection, etc.) of the e�orts produced in the process
(McNamara, 2007). These are identi�able by those out‐
side of the organization and are generally used to deter‐
mine if the organization is successful. The �nal step in
the systems approach includes feedback. This feedback
comes from the larger environment as well as from cus‐
tomers, clients, stakeholders, employees, or the govern‐
ment, to name a few sources. In systems open to the envi‐
ronment, the feedback may be used to modify the inputs
and processes used in accomplishing future goals
(McNamara, 2007). In organizations closed to the envi‐
ronment, the feedback may or may not be considered in
changes that are made to the organization.

The organization may have subsystems that operate
within the larger system as well. Each subsystem can be
thought of as a separate organization that works to ac‐
complish its own goals while contributing to the accom‐
plishment of the larger organizational goal(s). The sub‐
systems have their own boundaries, missions, and tasks,
as well as their own inputs, outputs, processes, and feed‐
back (McNamara, 2007). Detective units in police depart‐
ments can be thought of as subsystems. The detectives’
unit has its own mission, goals, and values, yet the detec‐
tives are working to accomplish the larger policing goals29% of sample

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They’re always covered. The only thing he had con‐
cerns about was the risk and this City
management’s call.”

Johnson then addressed Illinois Compiled Statute
65 5/3.1-30-21 Sec. 3.1-30-21 regarding part-time
police o�cers. The complete statute reads as fol‐
lows: A municipality may appoint, discipline, and
discharge part-time police o�cers. A municipality
that employs part-time police o�cers shall, by ordi‐
nance, establish hiring standards for part-time po‐
lice o�cers and shall submit those standards to the
Illinois Law Enforcement Training and Standards
Board. Part-time police o�cers shall be members of
the regular police department, except for pension
purposes. Part-time police o�cers shall not be as‐
signed under any circumstances to supervise or di‐
rect full-time police o�cers of a police department.
Part-time police o�cers shall not be used as perma‐
nent replacements for permanent full-time police
o�cers. Part-time police o�cers shall be trained un‐
der the Intergovernmental Law Enforcement
O�cer’s In-Service Training Act in accordance with
the procedures for part-time police o�cers estab‐
lished by the Illinois Law Enforcement Training and
Standards Board. A part-time police o�cer hired af‐
ter Jan 1, 1996 who has not yet received certi�ca‐
tion under Section 8.2 of the Illinois Police Training

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the organization is working according to the vision, peo‐
ple perceive the organization as going well. The mission is
the overall purpose of the organization and is used to
help describe organizations to those outside of it, such as
community members. The mission may be a statement
or a list of goals to be accomplished (Ivancevich,
Donnelly, & Gibson, 1989). A correctional institution’s
mission may include statements regarding protecting
the public, sta� members, and inmates; providing oppor‐
tunities for rehabilitation; and assisting in reintegrating
o�enders into society once they are released. A common
mission statement in police departments may include
phrases that support public safety, working with citizens
and the community, and reducing crime. For example,
the Atlanta Police Department in Georgia states that their
mission is to “create a safer Atlanta by reducing crime,
ensuring the safety of our citizens and building trust in
partnership with our community” (Atlanta Police
Department, n.d., para. 1).

The values held in an organization are considered priori‐
ties. They incorporate aspects of the vision and the mis‐
sion to focus the activities of an organization. The values
are determined by the culture of the organization. In
policing, the culture tends to revolve around providing
services, controlling crime, and increasing public safety.
There are strict policies and procedures to be followed in
carrying out the activities of the policing agency. O�cers’

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g y q y
the agency or used by those viewed as leaders. Thinking
of the sheri�s mentioned previously, we are reminded of
the old saying, “There’s a new sheri� in town,” but even
with new administration, we may see very few changes
occur in the policing organization and in the providing of
services. Finally, leadership in criminal justice can be
constrained by environmental factors (discussed in detail
in Chapter 4) that weigh into these agencies. Union con‐
tracts, budgeting constraints, legislative decisions, court
rulings, and a lack of community support may limit the
amount of change a leader can accomplish inside a polic‐
ing or correctional institution. These factors may also de‐
termine the means used and ends accomplished, so there
is little a leader can do to challenge the system.
Consequently, the leaders may not be inspired or moti‐
vated to accomplish the goals of the organization, and
they may end up doing little for those who look to them
for guidance and encouragement. For example, in one
county in Florida, the Sheri� is attempting to use social
media to educate and raise awareness but often experi‐
ences negative responses from those viewing the posts.
Recently, under a fourth of July �reworks educational
video, community members posted numerous comments
to include, “So, will this be the year that [the county]
Deputies enforce the laws regarding illegal �reworks pur‐
chase and use, or just another year where Seniors, Pets,
Special Needs Children, Veterans with PTSD, and folks

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Statute Open to Interpretation Says City of
Abingdon O�cials

August 2, 2007

ABINGDON—An Abingdon Police Committee meet‐
ing was held Thursday evening, July 26; a follow-up
to the previous meeting held the Wednesday before.
At this meeting Abingdon Chief of Police, Ed
Swearingen, and Lt. Jared Hawkinson, were present
as were Aldermen Jason Johnson, Ronnie Stelle,
Dean Fairbank, Dale Schisler, Myron Hovind, Mike
Boggs, Mayor Stephen Darmer, Treasurer Jim Davis
and Abingdon City Clerk Sheila Day.

At the previous meeting the question as to whether
or not speci�c passengers riding in Abingdon squad
cars were covered by City insurance was addressed
with the understanding that certain passengers
would not fall under the City insurance policy.
Darmer says, after speaking with the City’s insur‐
ance representative, this is not the case. “He said
passengers are all covered under our insurance.
They’re always covered. The only thing he had con‐
cerns about was the risk and this City
management’s call.”

Johnson then addressed Illinois Compiled Statute
65 5/3.1-30-21 Sec. 3.1-30-21 regarding part-time
police o�cers The complete statute reads as fol31% of sample

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necessarily possess the abilities to be good leaders and
may not be able to adapt easily to situations that arise.
Because of the way they obtained their positions, it may
be more di�cult for them to lead others employed by the
agency, since there are relationships already formed with
the community and employees. In a study of police chiefs
and sheri�s, LaFrance and Allen (2010) found that sher‐
i�s lived in the county they served for an average of 20 or
more years longer than police chiefs, were more likely to
have served in their current positions longer than police
chiefs, and on average have worked for the agency they
served for almost six times longer than police chiefs.
Based on these �ndings, even though sheri�s are elected,
they have obvious relationships with the community and
the employees in the sheri�’s o�ce. These relationships
may impact the ability to impose changes and lead the
department.

In addition, employees in criminal justice agencies are
not necessarily encouraged to think outside of the box,
often because of constitutional and legal con�nes and
training mandates. Therefore, imagination, creativity,
and long-term innovation may not be qualities valued by
the agency or used by those viewed as leaders. Thinking
of the sheri�s mentioned previously, we are reminded of
the old saying, “There’s a new sheri� in town,” but even
with new administration, we may see very few changes
occur in the policing organization and in the providing of
services Finally leadership in criminal justice can be36% of sample

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job, look at long-term goals, and inspire and motivate;
whereas managers maintain the status-quo, monitor the
means by which the job is getting done, and solve prob‐
lems as they arise in the organization. Leaders and man‐
agers can actually be at opposition in their approach to
the work and accomplishment of organizational goals.

There is some debate on whether leaders are born with
leadership characteristics, are taught to be good leaders,
or are better able to perform leadership behaviors than
others. Trait theories put forth that leaders are born with
speci�c characteristics that make them more capable of
leading others (Bass, 1981; Lippitt, 1955; Stogdill, 1974).
They may be more emotionally stable; be more business-
minded; or have more self-con�dence, integrity, and hon‐
esty, and a constant drive to promote change and to make
improvements in their environments. Contrary to this
approach, it may be that the person seen as a leader is
simply better able to perform the behaviors associated
with leadership—being supportive of others, friendly,
and approachable; able to set goals, give directions, assign
tasks, inspire, and motivate—and get people in the orga‐
nization to accomplish individual and organizational
goals. This is a behavioral approach. Behaviorists are in‐
terested in how those perceived as leaders can motivate
others to perform. In their minds, leadership can be
learned (Shanahan, 1978).

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creativity, motivation, organizational structure, setting
direction, and promoting change. Parke-Davis believes
that its managers have an improved sense of self-aware‐
ness, leadership behaviors, and self-con�dence as a result
of the program. In addition, the organization feels the
program provides employees with a “clearer idea of re‐
sponsibilities and values needed to lead others … [as well
as improved] communication, teambuilding, and prob‐
lem solving skills” (“Making Scientists Into Leaders,”
2001, p. 938). Learning how to lead, when best to lead,
and in what situation leadership skills are most appropri‐
ate is the approach put forth in situational theories, as
seen in the Parke-Davis curriculum.

The lack of leadership skills initially seen by Parke-Davis
in the company’s scientists can also appear, at times, in
the criminal justice system. Managers, who are assumed
to be the leaders in criminal justice agencies, are usually
promoted from within and arrive at their positions be‐
cause of the amount of time served with the organiza‐
tion, by community election, through appointment, or
because of socialization skills or heroism. They do not
necessarily possess the abilities to be good leaders and
may not be able to adapt easily to situations that arise.
Because of the way they obtained their positions, it may
be more di�cult for them to lead others employed by the
agency, since there are relationships already formed with
the community and employees. In a study of police chiefs

d h i� d ll ( ) f d h h36% of sample

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privately owned or publicly held corporations. They may
be unincorporated sole proprietorships owned by one
person or partnerships between people or organizations,
and the activities of the business are viewed as taxable
personal income (McNamara, 2007). The sole proprietor
is liable personally for all activities and operations of the
business. For-pro�t businesses can also be organized as
corporations (known as C corporations and S corpora‐
tions). A corporation is considered its own legal entity,
separate from the individuals who own it or who formed
the organization. Corporations can be for-pro�t or non‐
pro�t (government owned, for example) (McNamara,
2007). Corporations are usually formed to limit the liabil‐
ity the founders will face if there are poor operations or
harmful activities and so that stock can be sold in the
business. A board of directors is appointed to oversee the
activities of corporations. Finally, for-pro�t organizations
may organize as limited liability companies (LLCs). The
LLC combines the advantages of the corporation with
those of the sole proprietorship. The founders have mini‐
mum personal liability, unless a state or federal law is vi‐
olated; they can sell stock in the business; they can retain
a voice in management decisions, goals, values, and ac‐
tivities; and they can share in pro�ts. This is a very popu‐
lar form of for-pro�t organization (McNamara, 2007).

For-pro�t businesses rely on a formal structure with a
rigid hierarchy to accomplish their goals. A president or

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and the students majoring in criminal justice. The
Department of Criminal Justice is situated in a college or
school (often called the School of Social Sciences) along
with other departments with similar disciplines, and
they share a mission and common goals and values set by
the dean. Finally, these three systems operate within the
larger university setting to accomplish the mission and
strategic goals and values set by the school’s administra‐
tion. To add to this, some universities are involved in
statewide systems that include all universities within the
state. In Georgia, for example, all state-funded schools
belong to the University System of Georgia (USG). The
USG sets a mission, goals, and values for the state educa‐
tional system and passes that information down to the
various systems mentioned previously. The systems ap‐
proach will be investigated further in the next two chap‐
ters, but for now, su�ce it to say that all organizations
have systems in their structures. The impact of those sys‐
tems on organizational activities, goals, and values varies
greatly.

Organizations can be very complex organisms. They may
operate within the con�nes of formal rules, regulations,
and authority, or they may be more loosely based on the
achievement of goals with little supervision.
Organizations may also be open systems actively engag‐
ing and interacting with the environment or closed sys‐
tems that accept little outside input and feedback; each is

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to meet the �scal needs of the organization (McNamara,
2007). Funds may be garnered from grants, individuals,
foundations, and for-pro�t corporations. Grants are
likely considered one of the largest fundraising initia‐
tives in the criminal justice system (alongside forfei‐
tures). They are given by governmental agencies (federal
or state governments), foundations, and corporations to
operate a speci�c program or initiative. Grant monies are
provided up front and require an audit at the end of the
grant period showing success or failure at completing the
goals identi�ed in the grant application. Individual dona‐
tions may come from members of the organization or its
constituents (wealthy community members, for exam‐
ple). They are usually small, onetime contributions of
money or other assets, such as buildings or land
(McNamara, 2007). Foundations and for-pro�t corpora‐
tions may also choose to give onetime start-up costs to
nonpro�t organizations on issues they identify as wor‐
thy. Microsoft founder Bill Gates and his wife, for exam‐
ple, give charitable donations each year to nonpro�t orga‐
nizations that focus on children’s health, AIDS and HIV,
and medical and other health issues.

Nonpro�ts rely heavily on sta� and volunteers. The sta�
are hired and paid by the nonpro�t. They report to the
administration and work directly with the clients. Since
the agency is not generating pro�ts to pay for large num‐
bers of employees, volunteers are commonly used to as‐

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City of Abingdon O�cials,” by D. Fowlks, August 2,
2007, Argus- Sentinel, 2(31). Copyright © 2007
Argus-Sentinel.

Leadership

Managers are typically considered leaders by many inside
and outside of the organization. Managers are charged
with leading their subordinates through the task and
into completion of the job. However, the manager may or
may not be good at leading. Since “leadership can arise in
any situation where people have combined their e�orts
to accomplish a task” (Ivancevich et al., 1989, p. 296), a
leader is not always a manager. In other words, manage‐
ment and leadership are not synonymous. An important
task of leadership is to motivate others to accomplish or‐
ganizational goals. Managers may tell subordinates what
to do and how to do it, but they might not motivate sub‐
ordinates to actually �nish the job. Leaders inspire others
not only to do the work but also to �nish it. Leaders pro‐
mote change, keep an eye on the accomplishment of the
job, look at long-term goals, and inspire and motivate;
whereas managers maintain the status-quo, monitor the
means by which the job is getting done, and solve prob‐
lems as they arise in the organization. Leaders and man‐
agers can actually be at opposition in their approach to
the work and accomplishment of organizational goals.

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O�cer s In-Service Training Act in accordance with
the procedures for part-time police o�cers estab‐
lished by the Illinois Law Enforcement Training and
Standards Board. A part-time police o�cer hired af‐
ter Jan 1, 1996 who has not yet received certi�ca‐
tion under Section 8.2 of the Illinois Police Training
Act shall be directly supervised. This statute was
adopted Jan 1, 1996. Previously, Abingdon Police
Sgt. Carl Kraemer said part-time police o�cer Jared
Hawkinson has duties that include, but not limited
to, making the schedule for the Department and
Hawkinson was reported to be in charge of the
Department in the absence of Swearingen, which,
according to the statute, is a violation of Illinois
Law. Johnson, Police Committee Chair, said that is
not the case, “At the meeting it was brought up dis‐
cussing an o�cer, Lt. Hawkinson, being in charge of
the Department in absence of the Chief. According
to the Illinois Compiled Statutes, it does say part-
time o�cers shall not be assigned under any cir‐
cumstances to supervise or direct full-time police
o�cers of a police department. Now, when one
reads that and when one looks at the semantics of
the rank structure of the police department you see
the chief, you see lieutenant and you see sergeant
and being familiar with military command struc‐
ture you can see where they stair-step. In fact, we
have a ranking structure.”

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nization to accomplish individual and organizational
goals. This is a behavioral approach. Behaviorists are in‐
terested in how those perceived as leaders can motivate
others to perform. In their minds, leadership can be
learned (Shanahan, 1978).

The �nal approach to explaining leadership is situa‐
tional. This approach realizes that no one behavior may
be appropriate in all situations with all people and that
traits alone cannot always inspire others (Fiedler, 1967).
Instead, leaders should be able to adapt (and may be
taught to do so) to the situation put before them in deter‐
mining how best to approach the goals of the organiza‐
tion and the individuals being led. In this case, leadership
may be a learned quality. This seems to be the approach
chosen by Parke-Davis Pharmaceuticals in 2001. The
company partnered with the University of Michigan
Executive Education Center to develop curriculum to
teach its scientists leadership skills. The curriculum re‐
quired the scientists to develop an individual action plan
that addressed teamwork, qualities for success and fail‐
ure, self-awareness, coaching others, communication,
creativity, motivation, organizational structure, setting
direction, and promoting change. Parke-Davis believes
that its managers have an improved sense of self-aware‐
ness, leadership behaviors, and self-con�dence as a result
of the program. In addition, the organization feels the
program provides employees with a “clearer idea of re‐

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place of Chief. It is not Jared Hawkinson. In stating
that, going back to the Compiled Statute, in my
opinion, in the way I read this, you can have �ve
people read it and get �ve di�erent opinions; Lt.
Hawkinson is actually not a supervisor or directing
full-time police o�cers in any capacity. We’re trying
to make sure we’re not shooting ourselves in the
foot with anything we do. And, like I said, �ve peo‐
ple can read the Compiled Statute and have �ve dif‐
ferent interpretations. Actually, Hawkinson does
not have any full-time o�cers reporting to him in
any capacity. As far as the scheduling is concerned,
the scheduling is done by the Chief and Lt.
Hawkinson puts it on paper.”

Swearingen noted, prior to the conclusion of the
meeting, there are roadside safety checks planned
for September in Abingdon to be conducted by the
police department. Their focus will be on seat belt
and insurance violations and those not having City
Wheel Tax Stickers.

Source: From “Statute Open to Interpretation Says
City of Abingdon O�cials,” by D. Fowlks, August 2,
2007, Argus- Sentinel, 2(31). Copyright © 2007
Argus-Sentinel.

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tion are centered on the client. Clients are the consumers
of the nonpro�t organization’s services. In criminal jus‐
tice, this includes the victim, o�ender, community mem‐
ber, witness, treatment provider, and so forth. The non‐
pro�t is designed to meet the needs of the client
(McNamara, 2007) by continually assessing the desires of
the clients and determining the appropriate means of
providing for them. This is a service-oriented approach
and is the primary underlying theme of this textbook.
Assessments may be done by the executive director or, in
the case of criminal justice, the chief in charge of the
agency to determine the e�ectiveness of the organization
in meeting client needs. The chief is accountable for the
work of the sta� and to the public, as well as for carrying
out the strategic goals of the organization. If there are
failures in meeting needs—for example, crime increases
instead of decreases—the chief is the one called to the
carpet, so to speak, for an explanation.

The chief may also engage in fundraising to meet the
needs of the nonpro�t agency and, subsequently, the
clientele. Fundraising is not meant to create a pro�t but
to meet the �scal needs of the organization (McNamara,
2007). Funds may be garnered from grants, individuals,
foundations, and for-pro�t corporations. Grants are
likely considered one of the largest fundraising initia‐
tives in the criminal justice system (alongside forfei‐
tures). They are given by governmental agencies (federal

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reads that and when one looks at the semantics of
the rank structure of the police department you see
the chief, you see lieutenant and you see sergeant
and being familiar with military command struc‐
ture you can see where they stair-step. In fact, we
have a ranking structure.”

According to a hand-out passed around during the
meeting Hawkinson is in charge of administrative
functions: network operations, scheduling at the di‐
rection of the chief, �eet management; supervision
of part-time o�cers: patrol o�cers, �rearms in‐
structor, ordinance o�cer and serves as the auxil‐
iary o�cer liaison. Kraemer, who is a full-time o�‐
cer, is the patrol supervisor and has duties includ‐
ing report approval, direct supervisor of depart‐
mental operation at the direction of the chief and
evidence custodian. Said Johnson, “In the absence
of, for whatever reason, whether it be personal va‐
cation, whatever the occasion, in the absence of
Chief Swearingen, the person who is in charge is in
fact, Sgt. Kraemer. Sgt. Kraemer is the go-to-guy in
place of Chief. It is not Jared Hawkinson. In stating
that, going back to the Compiled Statute, in my
opinion, in the way I read this, you can have �ve
people read it and get �ve di�erent opinions; Lt.
Hawkinson is actually not a supervisor or directing
full-time police o�cers in any capacity. We’re trying

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Recently, under a fourth of July �reworks educational
video, community members posted numerous comments
to include, “So, will this be the year that [the county]
Deputies enforce the laws regarding illegal �reworks pur‐
chase and use, or just another year where Seniors, Pets,
Special Needs Children, Veterans with PTSD, and folks
that just want peace and quiet have to just suck it up, and
live with it, because it’s too much trouble to enforce the
laws on the books?” and “When will the department en‐
force laws about �reworks in neighborhoods???? It is not
fair to our vets with PTSD, our pets or our babies!!!!” and
“Mr. Entertainment – great safety message” (see Brevard
County Sheri�’s O�ce,
https://www.facebook.com/BrevardCountySheri�).
Although the Sheri� is receiving some pushback, shared
leadership (between managers and subordinates) and in‐
creased focus on situational leadership skills may in‐
crease his ability to garner support with the public and
allow him and other o�cers in similar criminal justice
organizations to be more adaptive. Leaders need to be
trained; they should not be assumed to have the abilities
to lead just because they have worked for an agency for a
long time. An extensive discussion on leadership is pro‐
vided in Chapter 7.

For-Pro�t and Nonpro�t Organizations

Organizations can be classi�ed into two broad categories,
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a voice in management decisions, goals, values, and ac‐
tivities; and they can share in pro�ts. This is a very popu‐
lar form of for-pro�t organization (McNamara, 2007).

For-pro�t businesses rely on a formal structure with a
rigid hierarchy to accomplish their goals. A president or
chief executive o�cer oversees the business by imple‐
menting strategic goals and objectives; working with the
board of directors in governance; supporting operations;
overseeing design, marketing, promotion, delivery, and
quality of the product or service; managing resources;
presenting a strong community image; and recruiting in‐
vestors (McNamara, 2007). The hierarchy branches out
from there to include vice presidents who specialize in
the various aspects—marketing or promotion, human re‐
sources, operations, sales, �nances, and so on—of the
business. Assistants work directly under the vice presi‐
dents, and so it goes until one arrives at the employees
working on the assembly line putting the product to‐
gether or selling the service to consumers. In addition to
the hierarchy, customers are sought after, and hopefully
retained, to continuously purchase the product or use the
service provided (McNamara, 2007). Investors are relied
on to buy stock in the business, or in the case of sole pro‐
prietorships, to fund the business until a pro�t is gener‐
ated. In the end, the results are the pro�ts yielded from
the sales of the product or service. These pro�ts may be
distributed among the investors or reinvested back into

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then bills the state or federal government for each client
serviced by the therapist. The therapist receives a
monthly salary regardless of the number of clients coun‐
seled, and the clients receive the treatment they need re‐
gardless of the cost.

Priorities for services by nonpro�ts are determined by
the clients, the community, and the political environ‐
ment, just as the demands for goods and services in for-
pro�t agencies are determined by many of the same indi‐
viduals. In both for-pro�t and nonpro�t agencies, admin‐
istrators, as well as sta�, must be aware of changes in
needs and wants in the environment (McNamara, 2007).
Meeting those needs and wants is highly demanding, and
there are no easy answers as to how organizations should
manage themselves to meet these challenges. A constant
concern for progressive organizations is how to continu‐
ously improve while o�ering a high-quality service or
product to a diverse group of customers. As discussed in
Chapter 3, nonpro�t organization service encounters
with diverse clients can be complex.

Some of the issues facing both nonpro�t and for-pro�t
organizations include the need for good leaders who also
possess the ability to manage and lead a team with vi‐
sion, skill, and su�cient resources to accomplish the
strategic goals identi�ed by the agency. Setting realistic
goals that are complex enough to challenge employees,
but not so complex that they cannot show results is also43% of sample

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drug o�enders and their therapy, which may be included
in the agency’s policy manual, may actually encourage
additional drug use in one person while discouraging it
in another, since people are very di�erent when it comes
to behavior changes. Consequently, probation, parole o�‐
cers, and treatment providers must have the ability to
choose from numerous alternatives, to weigh the costs
and bene�ts of each against the client’s unique situation,
and to make the decision on which alternative the client
will bene�t from the most. In probation and parole of‐
�ces and treatment programs, the administration uses a
hands-o� approach as long as the employees are meeting
the overall goals of the organization. (It should again be
noted that the size of the organization will make a di�er‐
ence, so the ability to generalize structure is limited.) The
means used to achieve the goals are less important than
the end result of rehabilitation in most probation, parole,
and treatment agencies. Probation and parole are dis‐
cussed in Chapter 11.

As noted in Figure 1.3, corrections is the end result of the
criminal justice system. Corrections is another area
where individuals may have some experiences (in driving
past a prison, knowing someone who was jailed, hearing
descriptions of the experiences of jailed celebrities, or
watching a prison drama on television) but may not have
experienced �rsthand the spectrum of correctional alter‐
natives. Thinking of corrections, one tends to think of

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vices is one way nonpro�ts can overcome the e�ects of
devolution, but it is by no means the most popular
choice. In many cases, those using the assistance of non‐
pro�ts cannot a�ord to purchase the services in the �rst
place; otherwise, they would likely go to a for-pro�t
agency for the service. When a fee is involved, the agency
is concerned that those most in need of the service can‐
not receive it because of the fee, and clients are concerned
about how to pay for the service in the �rst place
(McNamara, 2007). As a result, assessing fees may put a
hardship on the client as well as the agency. A second re‐
sponse to devolution is to bill an outside party for the fee.
In some cases, state or county agencies are able to bill the
federal government for each client who uses their ser‐
vice. The billed amount may not cover the full cost of the
service, but it reimburses the nonpro�t for some of the
money spent on the client, and it does not require the
federal government to make a commitment as signi�cant
as a grant (McNamara, 2007). One example of this is in
court-ordered counseling services where the client re‐
ceives individual mental health counseling for free from
a nonpro�t agency referred by the court. The agency
then bills the state or federal government for each client
serviced by the therapist. The therapist receives a
monthly salary regardless of the number of clients coun‐
seled, and the clients receive the treatment they need re‐
gardless of the cost.

Priorities for services by nonpro�ts are determined by43% of sample

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service provided (McNamara, 2007). Investors are relied
on to buy stock in the business, or in the case of sole pro‐
prietorships, to fund the business until a pro�t is gener‐
ated. In the end, the results are the pro�ts yielded from
the sales of the product or service. These pro�ts may be
distributed among the investors or reinvested back into
the organization (McNamara, 2007).

Nonpro�t agencies are created to ful�ll one or more needs
of a community. Criminal justice agencies are considered
nonpro�t agencies that provide services to society by de‐
terring, preventing, identifying, and processing crime
and criminal acts. Even though a nonpro�t organization
may generate a pro�t, the goals of these organizations do
not include generating monetary earnings, although a
service or product may be provided to customers using
the agency. By calling an agency nonpro�t, it can be as‐
sumed that the organization is structured in such a way
that it is federally and legally forbidden to distribute
pro�ts to owners. A pro�t, in this case, means having
more revenue than expenditures (McNamara, 2007).

All activities, goals, and values in a nonpro�t organiza‐
tion are centered on the client. Clients are the consumers
of the nonpro�t organization’s services. In criminal jus‐
tice, this includes the victim, o�ender, community mem‐
ber, witness, treatment provider, and so forth. The non‐
pro�t is designed to meet the needs of the client
(McNamara, 2007) by continually assessing the desires of

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Nonpro�ts rely heavily on sta� and volunteers. The sta�
are hired and paid by the nonpro�t. They report to the
administration and work directly with the clients. Since
the agency is not generating pro�ts to pay for large num‐
bers of employees, volunteers are commonly used to as‐
sist sta� in the completion of tasks. The volunteers come
from a number of sources including university intern
programs, the AmeriCorps program, high school volun‐
teer programs, civic agencies, and individuals in the com‐
munity. They are not paid, but their contributions to the
organization can be invaluable.

One of the key issues facing nonpro�t organizations is
devolution. Devolution is the term used to describe cut‐
backs in federal funding to nonpro�t organizations
(McNamara, 2007). Central to this issue is the fact that
less money to a nonpro�t means fewer services to clients.
As a result of devolution, innovative sta� and reliance on
volunteers become even more important, as does the
ability of the administration to raise funds from other
outside sources (McNamara, 2007). Using fees for ser‐
vices is one way nonpro�ts can overcome the e�ects of
devolution, but it is by no means the most popular
choice. In many cases, those using the assistance of non‐
pro�ts cannot a�ord to purchase the services in the �rst
place; otherwise, they would likely go to a for-pro�t
agency for the service. When a fee is involved, the agency

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operate within the con�nes of formal rules, regulations,
and authority, or they may be more loosely based on the
achievement of goals with little supervision.
Organizations may also be open systems actively engag‐
ing and interacting with the environment or closed sys‐
tems that accept little outside input and feedback; each is
discussed in detail in Chapter 2. Either way, it is the man‐
agers who are tasked with clarifying the goals, systems,
structure, and mission of the organization. Clari�cation
of management and of goals, structure, and mission oc‐
curred in Abingdon, Illinois, in the provided news sce‐
nario. A reading of the Illinois Compiled Statutes led to
questions regarding an o�cer’s position and responsibili‐
ties in the police department. “In the News 1.1” brings to
light how statutory requirements may impact organiza‐
tional structure and how managers are called on to iden‐
tify organizational structures and employee tasks and
responsibilities.

In the News 1.1

Statute Open to Interpretation Says City of
Abingdon O�cials

August 2, 2007

ABINGDON—An Abingdon Police Committee meet‐
ing was held Thursday evening, July 26; a follow-up

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p p g y
agency primarily responsible for two tasks. First, the po‐
lice enforce the law by responding to calls regarding law
violations, arrest persons they witness or suspect to be
violating the law, and make tra�c or other types of stops.
They rely heavily on state statutes and constitutional re‐
quirements in performing these tasks. In this role, the
police are essentially gatekeepers to the criminal justice
system by determining who will be arrested and brought
into the system and who will be warned, let go, or other‐
wise ignored by the system (McCamey & Cox, 2008).
Second, the police are responsible for providing services.
Actual enforcement of the law is a minimal part of the
police department’s daily responsibilities. Using negotia‐
tion skills and mediation abilities in situations where
there are disputes between parties, providing �rst aid,
checking security alarms on buildings, investigating acci‐
dents, transporting prisoners, providing information,
�ngerprinting, making public speeches, handling calls
about animals, and other service-related tasks are com‐
mon occurrences in a police o�cer’s day (McCamey &
Cox, 2008). Strict policies and procedures are followed by
the police in carrying out both law enforcement and ser‐
vice-related duties. Police departments typically operate
in a centralized manner so that quick responses can oc‐
cur when calls for assistance are made to the organiza‐
tion. In both enforcement and service-related circum‐
stances, the police are largely a reactive organization that
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much more similar to small for pro�ts than to large non
pro�ts. Similarly, large nonpro�ts are often more similar
to large for-pro�ts than small nonpro�ts” (McNamara,
2007, no page).

What Are Criminal Justice Organizations?

The criminal justice system is comprised of many agen‐
cies working toward di�erent albeit related tasks. It is
important to understand these agencies, their goals and
objectives, their history, and their clientele to be able to
design an e�ective and e�cient system focused on pro‐
viding quality services. There are four primary areas of
criminal justice: police, courts, corrections, and security
(although some would not include security, since it is pri‐
marily pro�t-based).

The police are perhaps the most familiar part of the crim‐
inal justice system, since they are the ones called when
someone becomes a victim of a crime, the ones that stop
drivers who violate tra�c laws, and are those seen driv‐
ing around the neighborhood on patrol by community
members. The police department is a highly structured
agency primarily responsible for two tasks. First, the po‐
lice enforce the law by responding to calls regarding law
violations, arrest persons they witness or suspect to be
violating the law, and make tra�c or other types of stops.
They rely heavily on state statutes and constitutional re‐
quirements in performing these tasks In this role the44% of sample

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Identifying management in an organization may be
di�cult because policies, procedures, goals, values,
and the mission can be in�uenced by line sta� as
well as top administrators.
Many theoretical attempts have been made to iden‐
tify who management is and the responsibilities of
management in an organization. In this text, man‐
agement is viewed as e�cient and e�ective in meet‐
ing organizational goals while using the least
amount of resources possible.
Organizations di�er greatly in size, structure, val‐
ues, goals, and mission. Organizations can be formal
or informal, centralized or decentralized. They may
have de�ned chains of command and vertical com‐
munication or loosely identi�ed chains of com‐
mand and horizontal communication. The overall
purpose of any organization is to achieve agreed-on
goals and objectives.
Organizations have a vision of how work should be
accomplished by the line sta�. They identify a mis‐
sion statement so that those outside of the organi‐
zation are aware of their purpose. Organizations
create value structures that depend on the people
working in the organization and the culture of the
organization. Values are considered the priorities of
the organization. In addition, organizations use
strategic goals to guide their e�orts and to accom‐
plish their stated missions The goals are measur‐49% of sample

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long time. An extensive discussion on leadership is pro‐
vided in Chapter 7.

For-Pro�t and Nonpro�t Organizations

Organizations can be classi�ed into two broad categories,
namely, for-pro�t and nonpro�t. This classi�cation of or‐
ganizations is helpful because the underlying values, ob‐
jectives, visions, and mission statements that form the
guiding principles in attaining organizational goals in
each category are di�erent. The inherent di�erences and
similarities found in nonpro�t criminal justice organiza‐
tions and for-pro�t types of businesses must be
understood.

For-pro�t organizations, such as computer manufactur‐
ers, car dealerships, restaurants, and Internet service
providers, exist to generate pro�ts from products or ser‐
vices (McNamara, 2007). Their goal is to make a pro�t by
taking in more money than they spend on development,
training, personnel, marketing, distribution, and sales of
goods and services. For-pro�t businesses are organized as
privately owned or publicly held corporations. They may
be unincorporated sole proprietorships owned by one
person or partnerships between people or organizations,
and the activities of the business are viewed as taxable
personal income (McNamara, 2007). The sole proprietor
is liable personally for all activities and operations of the

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organizations include the need for good leaders who also
possess the ability to manage and lead a team with vi‐
sion, skill, and su�cient resources to accomplish the
strategic goals identi�ed by the agency. Setting realistic
goals that are complex enough to challenge employees,
but not so complex that they cannot show results, is also
an issue. Using diversity so that all perspectives can be
taken into consideration and �nding people good at plan‐
ning, organizing, guiding, and motivating others are keys
to organizational success (McNamara, 2007). It is also
necessary to have networks in place so that administra‐
tors can seek the funds and investments needed to run a
successful business. Seeking and receiving advice from
experts outside of the agency is important, as well as re‐
alizing that all services, in the case of nonpro�t agencies,
are not going to have an immediate impact, just as all
products made by for-pro�ts are not going to be success‐
ful (McNamara, 2007). Basically, nonpro�t and for-pro�t
agencies have just as many similarities as they do di�er‐
ences. The most important di�erence to focus on is the
size of the organization. “Small nonpro�ts are often
much more similar to small for-pro�ts than to large non‐
pro�ts. Similarly, large nonpro�ts are often more similar
to large for-pro�ts than small nonpro�ts” (McNamara,
2007, no page).

What Are Criminal Justice Organizations?
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create value structures that depend on the people
working in the organization and the culture of the
organization. Values are considered the priorities of
the organization. In addition, organizations use
strategic goals to guide their e�orts and to accom‐
plish their stated missions. The goals are measur‐
able outcomes used to assess the overall e�ective‐
ness of the organization. The more speci�c, measur‐
able, achievable, realistic, and time-speci�c
(SMART) goals are, the easier they are to identify
and achieve.
Organizations can be considered systems consisting
of inputs, processes, outputs, and feedback. Each or‐
ganization is made up of smaller subsystems oper‐
ating within the larger organizational system—a
multiple systems approach. Employees and man‐
agers can also be considered systems operating
within subsystems.
Leaders motivate others to accomplish organiza‐
tional goals. They may or may not be identi�ed as
managers within an organization. Being able to lead
is not the same as being a manager. Managers may
or may not be good leaders. Theoretical attempts to
explain leadership have focused on those born with
qualities that make them able to lead others, those
taught to be leaders, and those who learn to rely on
situations to determine the best way to lead.
For pro�t agencies are designed to develop and de50% of sample

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Leaders motivate others to accomplish organiza
tional goals. They may or may not be identi�ed as
managers within an organization. Being able to lead
is not the same as being a manager. Managers may
or may not be good leaders. Theoretical attempts to
explain leadership have focused on those born with
qualities that make them able to lead others, those
taught to be leaders, and those who learn to rely on
situations to determine the best way to lead.
For-pro�t agencies are designed to develop and de‐
liver products or services that generate income.
They may be organized as sole proprietorships, cor‐
porations, or LLCs. For-pro�t organizations tend to
be structured formally, with ends being more im‐
portant than means in accomplishing strategic
goals.
Nonpro�t organizations are created to ful�ll com‐
munity and client needs. They are not concerned
with generating earnings and rely heavily on
fundraising through grants, corporations, individu‐
als, foundations, and governmental agencies to
meet budgetary needs. Line sta� and volunteers are
employed to accomplish strategic goals. One of the
biggest issues facing nonpro�t organizations is
devolution.
For-pro�t and nonpro�t agencies are similar in that
they both require inputs and feedback from the en‐
vironment. They also rely on good leadership, su�‐

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g p g ,
judge and jury are meant to act as decision makers in de‐
termining guilt or innocence. Yet this is not the only
function of the courts. The courts also determine bail,
conduct preliminary hearings, rule on admissibility of
evidence, interpret the law, and determine the appropri‐
ate sentences for o�enders. Constitutional guarantees are
the backbone of the court system. By using formal proce‐
dures and structures, the court is better able to guarantee
objective treatment of those coming before it and to more
closely apply the law and constitutional requirements.
Without such structure, the court would be full of bias
and inconsistency. A detailed discussion of the courts is
provided in Chapter 10.

Probation, parole, and treatment programs are not typi‐
cally as structured as police departments and courts.
Employees in these specialties are tasked with making
decisions on rehabilitation alternatives that best meet
the needs of each individual client. In this case, a strict
policy or procedure explaining what to do or what pro‐
gram to use if the client consumes drugs, for example,
may not be appropriate. A strict procedure for handling
drug o�enders and their therapy, which may be included
in the agency’s policy manual, may actually encourage
additional drug use in one person while discouraging it
in another, since people are very di�erent when it comes
to behavior changes. Consequently, probation, parole o�‐
cers, and treatment providers must have the ability to47% of sample

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the police in carrying out both law enforcement and ser
vice-related duties. Police departments typically operate
in a centralized manner so that quick responses can oc‐
cur when calls for assistance are made to the organiza‐
tion. In both enforcement and service-related circum‐
stances, the police are largely a reactive organization that
depends on public cooperation in reporting crimes, pro‐
viding social control, and requesting assistance
(McCamey & Cox, 2008). A detailed discussion of policing
agencies is provided in Chapter 9.

The courts are depicted on television in courtroom dra‐
mas such as Law and Order. Most people are aware that
there is a prosecuting attorney, defense counsel, a judge,
and a jury in the courtroom, but they may not be aware
of the court processes, rules, or procedures. Courts are
also highly structured, centralized agencies reliant on
formal procedures of presenting evidence and hearing
cases. The major responsibility of the court system is to
provide impartiality to those accused of committing
criminal o�enses. In court cases, both parties, the defen‐
dant and the prosecutor, are allowed to present their ar‐
guments within strict procedural guidelines, and the
judge and jury are meant to act as decision makers in de‐
termining guilt or innocence. Yet this is not the only
function of the courts. The courts also determine bail,
conduct preliminary hearings, rule on admissibility of
evidence, interpret the law, and determine the appropri‐
ate sentences for o�enders Constitutional guarantees are46% of sample

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ously, what works for one organization may be unwork‐
able for another. Since the security industry is one of the
areas in criminal justice that can be in both private and
public sectors, labeling this �eld as having only formal or
informal organizational structure is impossible. Someone
who works for a university campus security program
may �nd a highly formalized organization similar to that
of the police department in a local town or municipality.
Another individual working as a private investigator
with a �rm may �nd that there is little structure and
much more autonomy in this position. This person is able
to decide when to work, how long to work in a day, and
how to perform surveillance needed to get the informa‐
tion required. Both parties may have the exact same
training and be involved in similar types of tasks, even
though the organizational structure di�ers greatly, im‐
pacting the way in which they do their jobs. The security
industry is discussed in detail in Chapter 13.

Chapter Summary

Identifying management in an organization may be
di�cult because policies, procedures, goals, values,
and the mission can be in�uenced by line sta� as
well as top administrators.
Many theoretical attempts have been made to iden‐
tify who management is and the responsibilities of

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fundraising through grants, corporations, individu‐
als, foundations, and governmental agencies to
meet budgetary needs. Line sta� and volunteers are
employed to accomplish strategic goals. One of the
biggest issues facing nonpro�t organizations is
devolution.
For-pro�t and nonpro�t agencies are similar in that
they both require inputs and feedback from the en‐
vironment. They also rely on good leadership, su�‐
cient resources, achievable goals, diverse sta�, and
planning for future activities to succeed.
The biggest di�erence between nonpro�t and for-
pro�t agencies is the size of the organization.
There are four areas of specialty in criminal justice:
policing, courts, corrections, and security. Each area
consists of agencies that are organized di�erently
depending on their size, clientele, and strategic
goals. All of them work together to accomplish the
larger system’s goals of upholding the laws, deter‐
ring criminal acts, and rehabilitating o�enders.

Chapter Review Questions

1. Think of an organization in which you are involved.
Can you identify a manager in the organization?
Can you identify a leader in the organization? Are
these two separate individuals? What qualities do
each possess that di�erentiate them from one
another?

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ized. Formal organizations are bureaucratic and have
clearly de�ned rules, procedures, and policies. Those at
the higher levels of the chain have the authority and
power to issue commands to those at the lower level.
Police departments use formal chains of command, with
street o�cers reporting to sergeants, who report to lieu‐
tenants, who report to assistant chiefs, who report to the
chief of police; there may even be levels in between these.
Skipping a level in the chain of command may result in
formal reprimands and is highly frowned upon by co‐
workers and supervisors. In a formal chain of command,
information will travel from the chief of police, to the as‐
sistant chiefs, to the commanders and sergeants, and �‐
nally to the street-level o�cers. Questions or comments
regarding the information will travel up the chain of
command in a similar fashion. By looking at Figure 1.1,
we can see a sample of the formal structure typical of a
police department. The patrol o�cers report to the shift
sergeants, who report to the commanders in each squad.
Each area of specialty has a de�ned chain of command
within the overall chain of command or formal structure
of the organization.

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sistant chiefs, to the commanders and sergeants, and �
nally to the street-level o�cers. Questions or comments
regarding the information will travel up the chain of
command in a similar fashion. By looking at Figure 1.1,
we can see a sample of the formal structure typical of a
police department. The patrol o�cers report to the shift
sergeants, who report to the commanders in each squad.
Each area of specialty has a de�ned chain of command
within the overall chain of command or formal structure
of the organization.

Figure 1.1 Organizational Chart of the Roxboro
Police Department, Roxboro, NC

Source: Roxboro Police Department,
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mal organizational structure. In probation, the line sta� or
probation o�cers working directly with the clients in the
�eld have more autonomy and input into the decision
making of the organization than do those in formalized
organizations. They are able to interpret policy; ask man‐
agers questions directly; and answer questions asked by
o�enders, family members of o�enders, service
providers, the judge, and so on, with little or no manage‐
rial input. Figure 1.2 demonstrates an organizational
chart in a medium-sized probation department. Notice
the �at horizontal structure compared to the vertical
structure of the police department in Figure 1.1.

Figure 1.2 Organizational Chart of Medium-Sized
Probation Department

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Figure 1.1 Organizational Chart of the Roxboro
Police Department, Roxboro, NC

Source: Roxboro Police Department,

http://www.cityofroxboro.com/assets/pdf/policeorg .

On the other side of the spectrum, we can see criminal
justice organizations that di�er greatly in formalization.
Although the size of the department may make a di�er‐
ence, organizations such as probation have a tendency
not to rely as heavily on formal chains of command. This
does not mean there is no organizational structure (the
larger the agency, the more formalized it may be); the
structure just tends to be more loosely tied together. The
organization, therefore, is less formalized. Probation o�‐
cers tend to report to one individual (the deputy chief),
who is directly linked to the chief probation o�cer. The
chief probation o�cer, the deputy chief, and the �eld
probation o�cers typically have a direct line of commu‐
nication to the judge(s). In essence, this is a more infor‐
mal organizational structure. In probation, the line sta� or
probation o�cers working directly with the clients in the
�eld have more autonomy and input into the decision
making of the organization than do those in formalized
organizations. They are able to interpret policy; ask man‐
agers questions directly; and answer questions asked by

� d f il b f � d i28% of sample

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Figure 1.2 Organizational Chart of Medium-Sized
Probation Department

Source: http://webapps.chesco.org/courts/cwp/view.asp?

a=3&q=606462.

Organizations are also structured as systems (discussed
in detail in Chapters 2 and 3). Basically, this means that
organizations have inputs, outputs, processes, and feed‐
back. The whole system is designed to accomplish the or‐
ganizational goal(s) (McNamara, 2007). Inputs are taken
in by the organization that include such things as re‐
sources, money, technology, people, and so forth. The in‐
puts are used to produce a process whereby the people in
the organization spend money and resources on activities
that meet the mission of the organization in hopes that
the identi�ed goals will be accomplished. The outputs are
the tangible results (e.g., products, services, or jobs; or in
the case of criminal justice, lowered crime rates, better
protection, etc.) of the e�orts produced in the process
(McNamara, 2007). These are identi�able by those out‐
side of the organization and are generally used to deter28% of sample

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found at both the state and federal levels. They have
paramilitary structures, although there is autonomy in
that the states can make decisions about their institu‐
tions separately from the federal system. The primary
di�erences in the institutions may include the gender be‐
ing housed, the age of the inmates, the types of o�enses
committed by the inmates, and the treatment programs
provided. But there are stark similarities in formalization
regarding policies and procedures, training of employees,
security, and control (McCamey & Cox, 2008). Employees
in correctional institutions tend to follow strict policies,
often explained in extensive policy manuals and acade‐
mies, and to work within a highly structured chain of
command.

Figure 1.3 The Criminal Justice System

Source: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice

Statistics, http://www.bjs.gov/content/largechart.cfm.
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Figure 1.3 The Criminal Justice System

Source: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice

Statistics, http://www.bjs.gov/content/largechart.cfm.

Security is the last area of specialty in criminal justice.
Security agencies have seen increased attention through
Homeland Security (antiterrorism) initiatives since the
terrorist attacks in New York City and Washington, DC, in
2001. The �eld of security includes many aspects such as
private security (guards, protection services, loss preven‐
tion, and investigations), cybersecurity (computer-based
crime), corporate security (�nances, workplace violence,
legal liability, health care issues, and risk assessment), as
well as governmental security (executive security, inves‐
tigations, and reporting). Security agencies di�er greatly
in their organizational structures. As discussed previ‐
ously, what works for one organization may be unwork‐
able for another. Since the security industry is one of the
areas in criminal justice that can be in both private and
public sectors, labeling this �eld as having only formal or
informal organizational structure is impossible. Someone
who works for a university campus security program
may �nd a highly formalized organization similar to that
of the police department in a local town or municipality.
Another individual working as a private investigator

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where individuals may have some experiences (in driving
past a prison, knowing someone who was jailed, hearing
descriptions of the experiences of jailed celebrities, or
watching a prison drama on television) but may not have
experienced �rsthand the spectrum of correctional alter‐
natives. Thinking of corrections, one tends to think of
prisons with fences, correctional o�cers, and uniformed
inmates; however, corrections also includes probation,
parole, treatment, diversion, and prevention programs. In
this textbook, we discuss correctional institutions, such
as prisons, in a chapter on prisons, jails, and detention
centers (see Chapter 12). Correctional institutions are
found at both the state and federal levels. They have
paramilitary structures, although there is autonomy in
that the states can make decisions about their institu‐
tions separately from the federal system. The primary
di�erences in the institutions may include the gender be‐
ing housed, the age of the inmates, the types of o�enses
committed by the inmates, and the treatment programs
provided. But there are stark similarities in formalization
regarding policies and procedures, training of employees,
security, and control (McCamey & Cox, 2008). Employees
in correctional institutions tend to follow strict policies,
often explained in extensive policy manuals and acade‐
mies, and to work within a highly structured chain of
command.

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