Columbia Southern University Covid 19 Pandemic Presentation

Instructions

You have been granted an interview with your state’s governor regarding the state’s preparedness and response to the COVID-19 pandemic. You will want to prepare for the interview by reviewing relevant resources and also develop 15–20 relevant questions to ask the governor.

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You have covered many aspects of public health in this course. For this assignment, you will apply at least two relevant concepts from Units I–VI to the COVID-19 pandemic. You will be researching your state’s response to the pandemic to prepare yourself for interviewing the governor of your state.

After selecting at least two relevant topics covered in Units I–VI, you will want to research the background and etiology of COVID-19 as well as your state’s preparedness and response.

The background information should include a brief timeline on the COVID-19 outbreak and your state’s preparedness to handle such a public health crisis. You will want to familiarize yourself with the timeline of how your state’s governor responded to the pandemic.

The types of questions to include are listed below:

  • questions related to goals, strategies, Approach, and performance outcome
  • questions related to the rights of citizens versus public health.
  • questions that examine the COVID-19 epidemiological reports for your state, if available, or those prepared by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and questions related to epidemiology and surveillance; and
  • questions that evaluate the impact that external affairs have played on your state’s ability to respond to COVID-19.

Prepare 15–20 relevant questions that you want to ask the governor based on these concepts. INCLUDE ONE QUESTION PER SLIDE ALONG WITH SPEAKER KEY NOTES WITH REFERENCES AS EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT YOUR QUESTION.
Adhere to APA Style when creating citations and references for this assignment. Include title and reference slides.

UNIT III STUDY GUIDE
Developing Public Health
Implementation Plans
Course Learning Outcomes for Unit III
Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:
1. Analyze the etiology of major health problems in populations that affect the development and
implementation of public health programs.
1.1 Select a target population in need of a public health intervention.
1.2 Plan a public health intervention for a target population.
Course/Unit
Learning Outcomes
1.1
1.2
Learning Activity
Unit Lesson
Webpage: About Chronic Diseases
Webpage: Health and Economic Costs of Chronic Diseases
Webpage: Disparities in Health and Health Care: Five Key Questions and
Answers
Unit III Assignment
Unit Lesson
Article: “Six Components Necessary for Effective Public Health Program
Implementation”
Webpage: Improving Patient Flow and Reducing Emergency Department
Crowding: A Guide for Hospitals
Video: FNH 473 Video 4: Implementing Community-Based Programs
Unit III Assignment
Required Unit Resources
In order to access the following resources, click the links below.
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2012). Improving patient flow and reducing emergency
department crowding: A guide for hospitals. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services.
https://www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/final-reports/ptflow/appendix-c.html
Artigam S., Orgera, K., & Pha, O. (2020, March 4). Disparities in health and health care: Five key questions
and answers. Kaiser Family Foundation. https://www.kff.org/disparities-policy/issue-brief/disparities-inhealth-and-health-care-five-key-questions-and-answers/
Candice Rideout. (2015, December 21). FNH 473 video 4: Implementing community-based programs [Video].
Cielo24. https://c24.page/64yy7ruqxqebauepubdj92ejrp
A transcript and closed captioning are available once you access the video.
Frieden, T. R. (2014). Six components necessary for effective public health program implementation.
American Journal of Public Health, 104(1), 17–22.
https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direc
t=true&db=bsu&AN=92889580&site=ehost-live&scope=site
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (n.d.). About chronic diseases.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/about/index.htm
PUH 6320, Public Health Capstone
1
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (n.d.). UNIT
Healthx STUDY
and economic
GUIDEcosts of
chronic diseases. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Title
https://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/about/costs/index.htm
Unit Lesson
Introduction
Implementation plans provide an organization with detailed
steps that enable them to successfully execute a proposed
solution to a predefined problem. Developing successful public
health implementation plans is challenging and resourceintensive. However, the critical role that these plans can play in
behavior change is valuable and worthwhile. Evidenced-based
research is critical to ensuring that public health implementation
plans have a high probability of success.
Components of Public Health Implementation Plans
During his tenure as Director of the Centers for Disease Control, Successful public engagement is critical to
any public health plans.
Frieden (2014) published a widely-respected article regarding
(Cgracer, n.d.)
the key ingredients needed for successful public health
programs outcomes. They are listed below.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Innovation
Technical package that includes high impact actions
Effective performance management
Public-private partnerships
Communication to stakeholders
Political commitment
These six components are best visualized as being a part of a wheel with innovation being the hub.
(Frieden, 2014)
PUH 6320, Public Health Capstone
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The components are described in detail in the Frieden resource in the Unit III Required
Unit Resources
UNIT x STUDY
GUIDE
section. The presence of these factors are equally important whether the program
Titleis a community-based one
or an initiative with a national focus.
The assignment for this unit is developing your own public health implementation plan, and a template is
provided in the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality resource in the Unit III Required Unit Resources
section. This template includes four main topics—three of which you will need to address. The first two topics
should consider the six Frieden components.
The first topic in the template, Goals and Strategies, includes a statement of the problem, a goal statement,
and a description of the strategy. Here, innovation would be an important consideration. Are you describing
the problem differently than has been done in the past? Does the proposed strategy include something novel?
For example, you might be investigating the high rate of obesity among Native Americans. Since a body of
work already exists for this topic, how will your program be different? Are their public-private partnerships
being proposed? Are there new approaches to measurements that will be used?
Approach is the second main topic in the template and includes details on team members, barriers to
successful implementation, implementation steps, and communication strategy. These also should address
components of Frieden’s model. How will you communicate with stakeholders? How will you demonstrate a
political commitment? Will the implementation steps include high-impact actions? How will the team leaders
ensure effective performance management? In your plan, you will list project team members; list the type of
positon you would expect the project member to hold, not actual names. For example, a project member
might be an administrative assistant, physical fitness trainer, public health analyst, or another position as
necessary to your plan.
Naturally, an implementation plan can only be as good as its outcomes. Being able to accurately measure
performance is difficult and requires a systematic approach. This is one of the many reasons a great deal of
thought must go into making certain the implementation plan will measure what you think it is measuring. For
instance, did the intervention actually measure a change in behavior, or did it simply measure a change in
intent? Did the intervention increase the participants’ level of knowledge, or did they just act in a way they
believed was expected of them? Outcomes can be influenced by a wide range of factors such as the
participants’ physical health, social and cultural characteristics, and their economic environment. In reality,
only a very small proportion of these determinants are directly impacted by a single public health intervention.
The third component of the example implementation plan template, Estimated Time and Expenses, will not be
addressed in this assignment and can be skipped.
The next component of the implementation plan (fourth as shown in the template but will be number three in
your assignment submission) is Performance Measures. In addition to the factors previously mentioned, there
should be consideration given to what types of outcomes the program was designed to measure. For
example, we might have an intervention to help diabetic patients lose weight over a period of time. The
following outcomes might be expected.
PUH 6320, Public Health Capstone
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UNIT x STUDY GUIDE
Title
Without sound and relevant performance measures, public health implementation plans can waste human
and financial resources.
Successful and Unsuccessful Programs
There is no shortage of theories and models on which to base public
health programs. However, there are no agreed-upon approaches
that can be used for a variety of public health problems in a variety
of settings. In other words, there is no generic one-size-fits-all
intervention.
One of the most notable public health campaigns sought to
dramatically reduce the number of smokers in the United States.
These programs were highly successful due in large part to mass
media campaigns that often relied on fear appeals (Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 1992). While fear appeals
Not all public health programs are
have produced mixed results in some public health efforts, they were
successful.
successful in antismoking crusades (Wong & Cappella, 2009). This
(Jarin13, n.d.)
is an example of where a particular strategy might be highly
successful for one intervention but inherently wrong for a different one.
Another successful public health program was aimed at reducing the number of alcohol-impaired driving
accidents. Mass media and advocacy groups, such as Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD), had a
meaningful impact on drastically changing this behavior. MADD, started by a mother whose young daughter
was killed by a drunk driver, is an illustrative example of an enormous shift in public health behaviors and
attitudes that began modestly, but they grew to national prominence (American Addiction Centers, 2020).
In the event of an unsuccessful program, it is critical to understand if the intervention was a failure due to a
faulty concept or theory or if the intervention was poorly implemented (Rychetnik et al., 2002).
PUH 6320, Public Health Capstone
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In an article by Suarez et al. (1997), an example of an unsuccessful public health
program
thatGUIDE
focused on
UNIT
x STUDY
cancer screening in Mexican-American women is provided; you can find this resource
Title in the references
section of this unit. Among other things, it was found that the promotional activities surrounding the
intervention were too diffuse, and the comparison community was contaminated with similar interventions.
While these findings help to inform future program implementations, it is an example of resources not being
used effectively. One might ask if the researchers should have known more about the community in which
they were conducting research.
More perplexing unsuccessful public health interventions have sought to address the obesity problem in
America. Research suggests that there are many interrelated and complex factors that contribute to obesity,
and education alone is ineffective (Gill & Boylan, 2012). This presents public health educators with the
daunting task of developing new and different implementation strategies to address this challenging health
crisis.
Disparities
There is a preponderance of evidence regarding the barriers associated with recruiting racial and ethnic
minorities for clinical research (George et al., 2014). Similarly, minorities are less likely to express a
willingness to participate in health intervention programs of any type. While the reasons for this are
multifaceted and complicated, the absence of representative numbers of minorities involved in public health
interventions augments disparities in health outcomes vis-à-vis a lack of evidence-based findings. Without
public health implementation plans targeting minority groups, it will continue to be a challenge to address
health disparities.
Interventions for health disparities require addressing the need to change the environments in which health
disparities are perpetuated. Some of these include educational options, employment opportunities, housing
conditions, and access to health care (Brown et al., 2019). Clearly, these types of interventions require a
massive commitment of resources and are beyond simple community strategies. How do we approach public
health interventions to address institutionalized practices?
Public health implementation plans are one of the cornerstones of evidence-based population health and
have produced invaluable improvements in American’s health. This has been especially evident in areas such
as heart disease prevention and cancer prevention. Given emerging and dangerous health threats, budgetary
constraints, and demographic shifts, public health interventions will remain critical yet challenging. Designing
and implementing successful programs will be at the forefront of efforts for improving population health and
addressing the widening health disparities gap.
References
American Addiction Centers. (2020). Effectiveness of mothers against drunk driving.
https://www.alcohol.org/teens/mothers-against-drunkdriving/#:~:text=History%20and%20Success%20of%20MADD,throughout%20the%20US%20and%20
Canada.
Brown, A. F., Ma, G. X., Miranda, J., Eng, E., Castile, D., Brockie, T., Jones, P., Airhihenbuwa, C.O., Farhat,
T., Zhuy, L., & Trinh-Shevrin, C. (2019, January). Structural interventions to reduce and eliminate
health disparities. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6356131/
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1992, September 4). Public health focus: Effectiveness of
smoking-control strategies — United States. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services.
https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00017511.htm
Cgracer. (n.d.). ID 174602286 [Image]. Dreamstime. https://www.dreamstime.com/public-engagementconcept-written-gear-wheel-image174602286
PUH 6320, Public Health Capstone
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Frieden, T. R. (2014). Six components necessary for effective public health program
UNIT x implementation.
STUDY GUIDE
American Journal of Public Health, 104(1), 17–22.
Title
https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direc
t=true&db=bsu&AN=92889580&site=ehost-live&scope=site
George, S., Duran, N., & Norris, K. (2014). A systematic review of barriers and facilitators to minority research
participation among African Americans, Latinos, Asian Americans, and Pacific Islanders. American
Journal of Public Health, 104(2), e16–e31.
https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direc
t=true&db=bsu&AN=93727739&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Gill, T. P., & Boylan, S. (2012, January 25). Public health messages: Why are they ineffective and what can
be done? Springer Link. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13679-011-0003-6
Jarin13. (n.d.). ID 41830879 [Image]. Dreamstime. https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photo-wordunsuccessful-changed-to-successful-torn-paper-white-background-image41830879
Rychetnik, L., Frommer, M., Hawe, P., & Shiell, A. (2002). Criteria for evaluating evidence on public health
interventions. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 2002(56), 119–127.
https://jech.bmj.com/content/jech/56/2/119.full.pdf
Suarez, L., Roche, R. A., Pulley, L. V., Weiss, N. S., Goldman, D., & Simpson, D. M. (1997, November 1).
Why a peer intervention program for Mexican-American women failed to modify the secular trend in
cancer screening. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 13(6), 411–417.
https://www.ajpmonline.org/article/S0749-3797(18)30133-8/fulltext
Wong, N. C. H., & Cappella, J. N. (2009). Antismoking threat and efficacy appeals: Effects on smoking
cessation intentions for smokers with low and high readiness to quit. U.S. National Library of
Medicine. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2680609/
PUH 6320, Public Health Capstone
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