# discussion 2 to week 8

Week 2Topic

Week 2: LEO Discussion Topic

Contains unread posts

Your work on the new student committee was a huge success! The director of new student rec

you continue your work on the committee. Specifically, the director would like you to distribute

students who attended the weekend event, gauging their level of interest in studying at UMGC.

obtaining demographic information from the prospective students, the academic program into

and their overall level of interest in attending UMGC. The survey questions and results are belo

Survey questions given to prospective students

•

•

•

•

What is your age?

Would you live in on-campus housing or off-campus housing?

Into which academic program would you enroll?

How likely are you to attend UMGC in the next year? (rate 1-4, 1 is not likely and 4 is

very likely)

Student

Age

Housing

Academic Program

1

18

Off campus

Political science

2

19

Off campus

History

3

17

On campus

Cybersecurity

4

30

Off campus

Nursing

5

18

On campus

History

6

21

On campus

Psychology

Topic

7

45

Off campus

Business

8

20

On campus

Business

9

18

On campus

Accounting

10

36

Off campus

Nursing

11

25

Off campus

History

12

29

Off campus

Sociology

13

31

Off campus

Spanish

14

19

On campus

Psychology

Your first task is to define the data resulting from each survey question as qualitative or quanti

qualitative, indicate if it is nominal or ordinal. If it is quantitative, indicate whether it is discrete

it is interval or ratio (see graphic below).

Topic

Next, create a table (a frequency distribution, stem and leaf plot, or a grouped frequency distrib

from one of the variables. Does including the relative frequency or cumulative frequency make

meaningful? Why do you feel this table best organizes the data? Include the table in your post.

Then, consider how you might visually display the results as a graph (bar graph, Pareto chart,

histogram, pie chart, or box plot). Why did you choose this graph? Explain why you believe thi

display the data. Include the graph in your post.

Finally, find the mean, median and mode for one of the variables. Which of these measures of c

think is the best choice for “average” and why? Find the range and standard deviation (measur

variable. What would a narrower or wider deviation signify in the context of this data?

Your initial post to the discussion (covering the 4 tasks above) is due by 11:59 pm EST on Satu

Consider the graphs/charts and measures of central tendency and dispersion that your peers h

with your choices? Discuss at least one benefit of your peer’s choices. Can you share a recom

choices? At least one substantive peer reply post is due by 11:59 pm EST on Tuesday.

Week 3

Topic

Week 3: LEO Discussion Topic

Probability tells us the chance or likelihood that a particular event will occur. Whether or not w

probability to make decisions. For instance, when deciding whether to take an umbrella, we ch

see the probability that it will rain. In this instance, probability tells us the likelihood that it will

about taking an umbrella is based on an individual’s willingness to risk getting rained on. Som

umbrella, when the probability of rain is at least 40%, while others will wait until the probability

What are two examples in which you have used probability to make a decision? One example s

life and one from your work life. If you do not work, show two examples from your personal life

values to show how the decision was made. Share this in your initial post to the discussion, wh

on Saturday.

Review the examples provided by the other members of the class. Make at least one substantiv

pm EST on Tuesday.

Week 4

Topic

Week 4: LEO Discussion Topic

By now you are adept at calculating averages and intuitively can estimate whether something i

far from average) or unusual (pretty far from the average you might expect). This class helps to

you measure is from average using the normal distribution. Basically, you mark the mean down

calculate the standard deviation of your sample and then add (or subtract) that value to come u

that measure the distance from the mean.

For example, if the average height of adult males in the United States is 69 inches with a standa

create the graph below.

Men who are somewhere between 63 and 75 inches tall would be considered of a fairly normal

than 75″ would be considered unusual (assuming our sample data represents the actual popul

look up exactly what percentage of men are shorter than (or taller than) a particular height.

Think of something in your work or personal life that you measure regularly (no actual calculat

z scores is necessary). What value is “average”? What values would you consider to be unus

were unusually high or low—how would it change your response to the measurement? This se

discussion and is due by 11:59 pm EST on Saturday.

Review the responses provided by the other members of the class. Make at least one substanti

on Tuesday.

Week 5

Topic

Week 5: LEO Discussion Topic

Now that we are at the midpoint of the course, it is important to pause and reflect on your cour

your initial reply, answer the following questions:

1. What are you doing to help yourself learn in this class that you are going to keep doing beca

2. What are you doing that is hindering you from learning in this class that you are going to qu

3. What do you think will help you improve your learning in this class that you are going to star

This serves as your initial post to the discussion and is due by 11:59 pm EST on Saturday.

Discuss your responses with your peers. What new tips or strategies did your peers recommen

the remainder of the class? Make at least one substantive peer reply post by 11:59 pm EST on

Week 6

Topic

Week 6: LEO Discussion Topic

Choose either topic #1 or topic #2 for your initial post. Respond to either for your peer reply po

Topic 1:

Results from surveys or opinion polls often report a range of values—the sample statistic plus

(the resulting range is called a confidence interval). This tells us that the range is likely to cont

parameter. How much wiggle room we provide is based on how much confidence we wish to h

the actual population mean. That confidence level is directly related to the middle “truth” area w

dubious tail area we will reject–also known as alpha (α). The more confidence we wish to have

we will need to accept (more wiggle room) thus a smaller tail area. If we insist on a larger alph

narrow the middle ground we will accept and thus provide less wiggle room—so the more likel

true average (and thus we have a lower confidence level). A 95% confidence level leaves 5% al

level leaves 1% alpha.

Now, without calculating a mean or margin of error or a confidence level, provide an example f

future) professional or personal life that describes a measurement that is normal—and how mu

Topic

side would be appropriate. When would you want a 95% confidence interval and when would y

confidence level (a little more wiggle room—so a wider range)? This serves as your initial post

choose topic #1) and is due by 11:59 pm EST on Saturday.

-ORTopic 2:

Two or more samples are often compared when we suspect that there are differences between

are cancer rates higher in one town than another, or are test scores higher in one class than an

when might you want to know the mean differences between two or more groups? Please desc

groups, what measurements) including how and why it would be used. This serves as your init

you choose topic #2) and is due by 11:59 pm EST on Saturday.

At least one substantive peer reply post is due by 11:59 pm EST on Tuesday.

Week 7

Topic

Week 7: LEO Discussion Topic

Choose either topic #1 or topic #2 for your initial post. Respond to either for your peer reply po

Topic 1:

One goal of statistics is to identify relations among variables. What happens to one variable as

change in one variable cause a change in another variable? These questions can lead to power

values through linear regression.

It is important to note the true meaning and scope of correlation, which is the nature of the rela

Correlation does not allow to say that there is any causal link between the two variables. In oth

variable causes another; however, it is not uncommon to see such use in the news media. An e

Topic

Here we see that, at least visually, there appears to be a relation between the divorce rate in Ma

consumption of margarine. Does this imply that all married couples in Maine should immediate

stave off divorce? Common sense tells us that is probably not true.

This is an example of a spurious correlation in which there appears to be a relation between th

consumption but, it is not a causal link. The appearance of such a relation could merely be due

another unseen factor.

What is one instance where you have seen correlation misinterpreted as causation? Please de

post to the discussion (if you choose topic #1) and is due by 11:59 pm EST on Saturday.

-ORTopic 2:

Linear regression is used to predict the value of one variable from another variable. Since it is

provide causation. In addition, the strength of the relationship between the two variables affect

from the other variable; that is, the stronger the relationship between the two variables, the bet

For example, given this data on literacy and undernourishment, we can create a scatter plot wh

relationship between the variables.

Topic

The graph implies that as literacy (x) increases, the percentage of people who are undernourish

We can calculate a best fit line equation and use this to predict that the undernourishment rate

a percentage literacy rate of 87% would be y = (-0.5539)(87)+55.621 or about 7.43 percent.

What is one instance where you think linear regression would be useful to you in your workpla

describe including why and how it would be used. This serves as your initial post to the discus

is due by 11:59 pm EST on Saturday.

At least one substantive peer reply post is due by 11:59 pm EST on Tuesday.

Week 8

Topic

Week 8: LEO Discussion Topic

Think back to week 1 of the course when you joined the fictional committee to assist prospecti

your program. One student had asked how statistics was used in your field, and you did an onl

examples. Now that we have wrapped up the course, consider how you would change your res

Reflecting on the content topics that you have learned, what are 3 additional ways in which sta

After posting your initial reply (due by 11:59 pm EST on Saturday), make at least one substanti

pm EST on Tuesday.