# discussion 2 to week 8

Week 2Topic
Week 2: LEO Discussion Topic
Your work on the new student committee was a huge success! The director of new student rec
you continue your work on the committee. Specifically, the director would like you to distribute
students who attended the weekend event, gauging their level of interest in studying at UMGC.
obtaining demographic information from the prospective students, the academic program into
and their overall level of interest in attending UMGC. The survey questions and results are belo
Survey questions given to prospective students

Would you live in on-campus housing or off-campus housing?
Into which academic program would you enroll?
How likely are you to attend UMGC in the next year? (rate 1-4, 1 is not likely and 4 is
very likely)
Student
Age
Housing
1
18
Off campus
Political science
2
19
Off campus
History
3
17
On campus
Cybersecurity
4
30
Off campus
Nursing
5
18
On campus
History
6
21
On campus
Psychology
Topic
7
45
Off campus
8
20
On campus
9
18
On campus
Accounting
10
36
Off campus
Nursing
11
25
Off campus
History
12
29
Off campus
Sociology
13
31
Off campus
Spanish
14
19
On campus
Psychology
Your first task is to define the data resulting from each survey question as qualitative or quanti
qualitative, indicate if it is nominal or ordinal. If it is quantitative, indicate whether it is discrete
it is interval or ratio (see graphic below).
Topic
Next, create a table (a frequency distribution, stem and leaf plot, or a grouped frequency distrib
from one of the variables. Does including the relative frequency or cumulative frequency make
meaningful? Why do you feel this table best organizes the data? Include the table in your post.
Then, consider how you might visually display the results as a graph (bar graph, Pareto chart,
histogram, pie chart, or box plot). Why did you choose this graph? Explain why you believe thi
display the data. Include the graph in your post.
Finally, find the mean, median and mode for one of the variables. Which of these measures of c
think is the best choice for “average” and why? Find the range and standard deviation (measur
variable. What would a narrower or wider deviation signify in the context of this data?
Your initial post to the discussion (covering the 4 tasks above) is due by 11:59 pm EST on Satu
Consider the graphs/charts and measures of central tendency and dispersion that your peers h
with your choices? Discuss at least one benefit of your peer’s choices. Can you share a recom
choices? At least one substantive peer reply post is due by 11:59 pm EST on Tuesday.
Week 3
Topic
Week 3: LEO Discussion Topic
Probability tells us the chance or likelihood that a particular event will occur. Whether or not w
probability to make decisions. For instance, when deciding whether to take an umbrella, we ch
see the probability that it will rain. In this instance, probability tells us the likelihood that it will
about taking an umbrella is based on an individual’s willingness to risk getting rained on. Som
umbrella, when the probability of rain is at least 40%, while others will wait until the probability
What are two examples in which you have used probability to make a decision? One example s
life and one from your work life. If you do not work, show two examples from your personal life
on Saturday.
Review the examples provided by the other members of the class. Make at least one substantiv
pm EST on Tuesday.
Week 4
Topic
Week 4: LEO Discussion Topic
By now you are adept at calculating averages and intuitively can estimate whether something i
far from average) or unusual (pretty far from the average you might expect). This class helps to
you measure is from average using the normal distribution. Basically, you mark the mean down
calculate the standard deviation of your sample and then add (or subtract) that value to come u
that measure the distance from the mean.
For example, if the average height of adult males in the United States is 69 inches with a standa
create the graph below.
Men who are somewhere between 63 and 75 inches tall would be considered of a fairly normal
than 75″ would be considered unusual (assuming our sample data represents the actual popul
look up exactly what percentage of men are shorter than (or taller than) a particular height.
Think of something in your work or personal life that you measure regularly (no actual calculat
z scores is necessary). What value is “average”? What values would you consider to be unus
were unusually high or low—how would it change your response to the measurement? This se
discussion and is due by 11:59 pm EST on Saturday.
Review the responses provided by the other members of the class. Make at least one substanti
on Tuesday.
Week 5
Topic
Week 5: LEO Discussion Topic
Now that we are at the midpoint of the course, it is important to pause and reflect on your cour
1. What are you doing to help yourself learn in this class that you are going to keep doing beca
2. What are you doing that is hindering you from learning in this class that you are going to qu
3. What do you think will help you improve your learning in this class that you are going to star
This serves as your initial post to the discussion and is due by 11:59 pm EST on Saturday.
the remainder of the class? Make at least one substantive peer reply post by 11:59 pm EST on
Week 6
Topic
Week 6: LEO Discussion Topic
Choose either topic #1 or topic #2 for your initial post. Respond to either for your peer reply po
Topic 1:
Results from surveys or opinion polls often report a range of values—the sample statistic plus
(the resulting range is called a confidence interval). This tells us that the range is likely to cont
parameter. How much wiggle room we provide is based on how much confidence we wish to h
the actual population mean. That confidence level is directly related to the middle “truth” area w
dubious tail area we will reject–also known as alpha (α). The more confidence we wish to have
we will need to accept (more wiggle room) thus a smaller tail area. If we insist on a larger alph
narrow the middle ground we will accept and thus provide less wiggle room—so the more likel
true average (and thus we have a lower confidence level). A 95% confidence level leaves 5% al
level leaves 1% alpha.
Now, without calculating a mean or margin of error or a confidence level, provide an example f
future) professional or personal life that describes a measurement that is normal—and how mu
Topic
side would be appropriate. When would you want a 95% confidence interval and when would y
confidence level (a little more wiggle room—so a wider range)? This serves as your initial post
choose topic #1) and is due by 11:59 pm EST on Saturday.
-ORTopic 2:
Two or more samples are often compared when we suspect that there are differences between
are cancer rates higher in one town than another, or are test scores higher in one class than an
when might you want to know the mean differences between two or more groups? Please desc
groups, what measurements) including how and why it would be used. This serves as your init
you choose topic #2) and is due by 11:59 pm EST on Saturday.
At least one substantive peer reply post is due by 11:59 pm EST on Tuesday.
Week 7
Topic
Week 7: LEO Discussion Topic
Choose either topic #1 or topic #2 for your initial post. Respond to either for your peer reply po
Topic 1:
One goal of statistics is to identify relations among variables. What happens to one variable as
change in one variable cause a change in another variable? These questions can lead to power
values through linear regression.
It is important to note the true meaning and scope of correlation, which is the nature of the rela
Correlation does not allow to say that there is any causal link between the two variables. In oth
variable causes another; however, it is not uncommon to see such use in the news media. An e
Topic
Here we see that, at least visually, there appears to be a relation between the divorce rate in Ma
consumption of margarine. Does this imply that all married couples in Maine should immediate
stave off divorce? Common sense tells us that is probably not true.
This is an example of a spurious correlation in which there appears to be a relation between th
consumption but, it is not a causal link. The appearance of such a relation could merely be due
another unseen factor.
What is one instance where you have seen correlation misinterpreted as causation? Please de
post to the discussion (if you choose topic #1) and is due by 11:59 pm EST on Saturday.
-ORTopic 2:
Linear regression is used to predict the value of one variable from another variable. Since it is
provide causation. In addition, the strength of the relationship between the two variables affect
from the other variable; that is, the stronger the relationship between the two variables, the bet
For example, given this data on literacy and undernourishment, we can create a scatter plot wh
relationship between the variables.
Topic
The graph implies that as literacy (x) increases, the percentage of people who are undernourish
We can calculate a best fit line equation and use this to predict that the undernourishment rate
a percentage literacy rate of 87% would be y = (-0.5539)(87)+55.621 or about 7.43 percent.
What is one instance where you think linear regression would be useful to you in your workpla
describe including why and how it would be used. This serves as your initial post to the discus
is due by 11:59 pm EST on Saturday.
At least one substantive peer reply post is due by 11:59 pm EST on Tuesday.
Week 8
Topic
Week 8: LEO Discussion Topic
Think back to week 1 of the course when you joined the fictional committee to assist prospecti
examples. Now that we have wrapped up the course, consider how you would change your res
Reflecting on the content topics that you have learned, what are 3 additional ways in which sta
After posting your initial reply (due by 11:59 pm EST on Saturday), make at least one substanti
pm EST on Tuesday.

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