Effective Discharge Planning Discussion Paper

Pleaseseeattached phase 1 paper so you follow the same topic

Your paper will be at least five to six pages (strict adherence to APA guidelines is required). Additionally, class, I will be looking for the quality of your writing, not the quantity. Your writings should be concise, factual and disseminates information.

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We will commence as follows:

  1. Brief literature review
  2. Methodology and design of the study (Please be detailed-oriented as possible)
  3. Sampling Methodology
  4. Necessary tools that will be incorporated into your paper
  5. Any algorithms or flow maps that you may create (illustrations)

Please pay very close attention to the requirements of the grading rubric. Remember that you want to keep your similarity scores at 20% or below and we will continue to implement the writing and formatting standards associated with APA 6th edition. Currently, we are not utilizing the 7th edition of APA.

Outstanding 4 points

Very Good 3 points

Good 2 Points

Unacceptable 1 point

Integration of Knowledge

12.5%

The paper demonstrates that the author fully understands and has applied concepts learned in the course.

Concepts are integrated into the writer’s own insights.

The writer provides concluding remarks that show analysis and synthesis of ideas

The paper demonstrates that the author, for the most part, understands and has applied concepts learned in the course.

Some of the conclusions, however, are not supported in the body of the paper

The paper demonstrates that the author, to a certain extent, understands and has applied concepts learned in the course

The paper does not demonstrate that the author has fully understood, and applied concepts learned in the course.

Topic Focus

12.5%

The topic is focused narrowly enough for the scope of this assignment.

A thesis statement provides direction for the paper, either by a statement of a position or hypothesis

The topic is focused but lacks direction.

The paper is about a specific topic but the writer has not established a position.

The topic is too broad for the scope of this assignment.

The topic is not clearly defined

Depth of Discussion

12.5 %

In-depth discussion and elaboration in all sections of the paper.

In-depth discussion and elaboration in most sections of the paper.

The writer has omitted pertinent content.

Quotations from others outweigh the writer’s own ideas excessively.

Cursory discussion in all the sections of the paper or brief discussion in only a few sections

Cohesiveness

12.5%

Ties together information from all sources.

Paper flows from one issue to the next without the need for headings.

Author’s writing demonstrates an understanding of the relationship among material obtained from all sources

For the most part, it ties together information from all sources.

Paper flows with only some disjointedness.

The author’s writing demonstrates an understanding of the relationship among material obtained from all sources.

Sometimes ties together information from all sources.

Paper does not flow.

Disjointedness is apparent.

The author’s writing does not demonstrate an understanding of the relationship among material obtained from all sources.

It does not tie together information.

Paper does not flow and appears to be created from disparate issues.

Headings are necessary to link concepts.

Writing does not demonstrate understanding any relationship

Spelling and Grammar 12.5%

Minimal spelling and/or grammar mistakes

Some spelling and or grammar mistakes.

Noticeable spelling and grammar mistakes.

An unacceptable number of spelling and/or grammar mistakes

Sources

12.5%

More than 5 current sources, of which at least 3 are peer-review journal articles or scholarly books.

Sources include both general background sources and specialized sources.

Special-interest sources and popular literature and acknowledged as such if they are cited.

All web sites utilized are authoritative.

5 current sources, of which at least 2 are peer-review journal articles or scholarly books.

All web sites utilized are authoritative.

Fewer than 5 current sources or fewer than 2 of 5 are peer-reviewed journal articles or scholarly books. All web sites utilized are credible.

Fewer than 5 current sources or fewer than 2 of 5 are peer-reviewed journal articles or scholarly books. Not all web sites utilized are credible, and/or sources are not current.

Citations

12.5%

Cites all data obtained from other sources.

APA citation style is used in both text and bibliography

Cites most data obtained from other sources.

APA citation style is used in both text and bibliography.

Cites some data obtained from other sources.

The citation style is either inconsistent or incorrect.

It does not cite sources.

Running Head: OBSTACLES TO EFFECTIVE DISCHARGE PLANNING
Factors that Limit Effective Discharge Planning for Chronically ill Patients in ICU
Student’s Name: Yaniel Lopez
Curse: NGR 5110 Nursing Research
Date: 02/302020
1
OBSTACLES TO EFFECTIVE DISCHARGE PLANNING
Table of Contents
Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3
Statement of the Problem …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4
Purpose of the Study …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4
Approach …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4
Research Question ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5
Expected Outcomes ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5
Significance of the Study …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5
Methodology ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6
Research Design……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6
Sample Population and Sampling Method ………………………………………………………………….. 6
Data Collection ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6
Data Analysis …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6
References …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8
2
OBSTACLES TO EFFECTIVE DISCHARGE PLANNING
Introduction
According to Naylor et al. (2011), the goal of transitional care is to prevent
hospitalizations and health complications of chronically ill patients when they leave hospital
settings. It is a process that requires a comprehensive home-follow-up and discharge
planning. Effective discharge planning is meant to link the treatment that a patient receives at
the hospital and the post-discharge care that the patient receives from the community
(Shepperd et al., 2013). When patients arrive at the hospital, nurses should: i)
comprehensively assess the health status of the patient, ii) develop comprehensive care plans
for every patient using evidence-based guidelines, and in collaboration with other health
professionals and the families of the patients, and iii) daily visit and asses the patient and start
working on a care plan upon discharge. When a patient gets discharged from the hospital, a
nurse should visit the patient periodically at home or schedule phone calls with the patient.
Numerous studies such as Behzadian and Kapelan (2015), Mazloum et al. (2016), and
Kisely et al. (2017) .indicate that patient satisfaction and health outcomes increase with
effective discharge planning, while other studies indicate that it reduces readmission rates and
the length of stay at the hospital. Discharge nursing is an essential component in nursing
because it has significant impacts on how the family copes when chronically ill patients leave
the hospital. Discharge planning follows the following steps: i) identifying patients that will
need help with discharge planning, ii) working together with the patient’s family and other
healthcare professionals in planning the discharge, iii) recommending continued care options,
or referring the patient to services or programs that meet their preferences and needs, and iv)
encouraging and supporting the patients and their families during the care periods. But
despite the importance of discharge planning, Wong et al. (2011) argues that most hospitals
discharge their patients without proper panning. This research will explore the experiences
3
OBSTACLES TO EFFECTIVE DISCHARGE PLANNING
that nurses face during discharge planning with the aim of identifying the obstacles to
effective and comprehensive discharge planning.
Statement of the Problem
Many studies have revealed that most hospitals discharge their patients with
inadequate information, poor instruction, poor communication, insufficient planning, and
poor coordination between and among healthcare teams. Whenever discharging patients,
hospitals should ensure that comprehensive discharge plans are developed for each and every
patient, depending on the uniqueness of their cases (Raven et al., (2011). And since nurses
are always in contact with the patients and their families, they have a role to play in ensuring
that each patient and a comprehensive discharge plan before leaving the hospital. But as
many studies indicate, most healthcare providers do not release their patients from hospitals
with comprehensive discharge plans.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study will be to explore the factors that hinder nurses’ ability to
develop comprehensive discharge plans for chronically ill patients effectively. The researcher
hopes that the findings of the study will be used by nurses and other health professionals in
overcoming the challenges to effective discharge planning of patients in ICU.
Approach
The researcher will approach the research both bibliographically and empirically.
Bibliographic research will involve a review of the literature on similar topics in order to
understand the investigations of other experts as contained in the relevant literature.
Empirical research will allow the researcher to challenge, extend, and verify the hypothesis.
Empirical research will involve the collection of data from selected participants; collected
data will then be analyzed and conclusions made.
4
OBSTACLES TO EFFECTIVE DISCHARGE PLANNING
Research Question
This study will aim at answering the following research question:
1. What are the Factors that Limit Effective Discharge Planning for Chronically ill
Patients in ICU
Expected Outcomes
Through this research, the research expects to gain insight and identify the factors that
hinder nurses’ abilities to develop an effective discharge plan for chronically ill patients in
ICU. The researcher will explore the experiences and views of different nurses and hopes that
the participants will help identify those factors and how they can be controlled. The
researcher envisions that the findings of the research will be used as the basis for
improvements in regard to patient discharge planning, thus relaxing heightened anxiety levels
of families related to their patients being discharged from hospital. Evidence-based discharge
planning could also be used to manage time and to improve job satisfaction on nurses
working in ICU.
Significance of the Study
With the right information, healthcare professions – nurses included – can be able to
develop comprehensive discharge plans tailored towards the needs of individual patients. It is
expected that this research will reveal the factors that hinder effective discharge planning and
propose strategies that can be employed by a health professional in overcoming those
obstacles. If nurses and other health professions can arm themselves with the right
information, skills, and attitude, their efficiency also increases, eventually translating to
increased health outcomes and satisfied patients.
5
OBSTACLES TO EFFECTIVE DISCHARGE PLANNING
Methodology
Research Design
The findings of this study will be based on the views of nurses in ICU, and on
information obtained from relevant literature reviews. Therefore, the researcher will use a
qualitative design because of its suitability in exploring the behaviors and thoughts of people
individually and when in groups.
Sample Population and Sampling Method
The participants in this study will be 15 INC nurses within the XYZ area. A small
sample population will be chosen for this study due to time and financial constraints.
Purposive sampling will be used in selecting participants because it is the only way the
researcher will be sure that the chosen participants (nurses) have knowledge of the topic
under investigation (Etikan et. al., 2016). Only registered nurses with at least two years of
experience will be used in the study. Student nurses of nurses with less than two years of
experience will be excluded.
Data Collection
The researcher will collect data using in-depth interviews, which will be guided by
prompts and opening questions from the researcher. This will allow the researcher to develop
his own views. As opposed to structured questions, Prompts prevent the research from
forcing participants into certain lines of thought; they allow participants to speak of their
experiences using their own words (Pietkiewicz et al., 2014).
Data Analysis
Thematic content analysis will be used because it will allow the researcher to identify
main elements and recurring themes from collected data. Recorded interviews will first be
transcribed by the researcher. Transcription is a time-consuming exercise, but it will allow
the researcher to be immersed in the collected data. Transcribed data will be stored
6
OBSTACLES TO EFFECTIVE DISCHARGE PLANNING
electronically as word documents, followed by transcripts coding. To maintain the anonymity
of participants, pseudonyms will be used instead of their names. The researcher will then
analyze the data using SPSS and then summaries and conclusions made. To guarantee the
authenticity of the findings, an independent researcher will be asked to review the data and
validate it.
7
OBSTACLES TO EFFECTIVE DISCHARGE PLANNING
References
Behzadian, K., & Kapelan, Z. (2015). Advantages of integrated and sustainability-based
assessment for metabolism based strategic planning of urban water systems. Science
of the total environment, 527, 220-231.
Etikan, I., Musa, S. A., & Alkassim, R. S. (2016). Comparison of convenience sampling and
purposive sampling. American journal of theoretical and applied statistics, 5(1), 1-4.
Kisely, S., Wyder, M., Dietrich, J., Robinson, G., Siskind, D., & Crompton, D. (2017).
Motivational aftercare planning to better care: applying the principles of advanced
directives and motivational interviewing to discharge planning for people with mental
illness. International journal of mental health nursing, 26(1), 41-48.
Mazloum, S. R., Heidari-Gorji, M. A., Bidgoli-Gholkhatmi, M., & Agayei, N. (2016).
Effectiveness of discharge-planning on physical quality of life of patients with
ischemic heart disease. International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research,
6(2), 129.
Naylor, M. D., Aiken, L. H., Kurtzman, E. T., Olds, D. M., & Hirschman, K. B. (2011). The
importance of transitional care in achieving health reform. Health affairs, 30(4), 746754.
Pietkiewicz, I., & Smith, J. A. (2014). A practical guide to using interpretative
phenomenological analysis in qualitative research psychology. Psychological journal,
20(1), 7-14.
Raven, M. C., Doran, K. M., Kostrowski, S., Gillespie, C. C., & Elbel, B. D. (2011). An
intervention to improve care and reduce costs for high-risk patients with frequent
hospital admissions: a pilot study. BMC health services research, 11(1), 270.
8
OBSTACLES TO EFFECTIVE DISCHARGE PLANNING
Shepperd, S., Lannin, N. A., Clemson, L. M., McCluskey, A., Cameron, I. D., & Barras, S. L.
(2013). Discharge planning from hospital to home. Cochrane database of systematic
reviews, (1).
Wong, E. L., Yam, C. H., Cheung, A. W., Leung, M. C., Chan, F. W., Wong, F. Y., & Yeoh,
E. K. (2011). Barriers to effective discharge planning: a qualitative study investigating
the perspectives of frontline healthcare professionals. BMC health services research,
11(1), 242.
9

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