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  • PSY 530 Final Project Guidelines and Rubric
  • Overview
    The focus of social psychology is to understand how a person’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the real or imagined presence of others. Unlike
    sociology, social psychology takes the perspective of the individual rather than the group and examines what makes us engage in behaviors such as aggression,
    attraction, altruism, self-justification, social cognition, and social perception. With its roots in Gestalt psychology, social psychology puts its emphasis not on
    physical reality, but rather on an individual’s perception of the world around them. Historically, this field has played an important role in understanding the
    causes of, as well as treatments for, social issues such as reducing violence, increasing helping behaviors, and assisting people in living healthier and safer lives.

    The purpose of this assessment is to recognize the value of social psychology on society throughout its history as a field. You will also analyze research for how it
    changes or does not change based on the time period when it was conducted.

    This assessment addresses the following course outcomes:

     Analyze social psychological research for how the field has changed over the course of its history

     Assess the impact of social psychological research trends for their influence on human behavior

     Analyze elements of social psychological research for their influence on improving social welfare

     Evaluate the influence of social psychological research on society for its efficacy for social change

     Analyze ethical issues in social psychological research for determining appropriate strategies for use in scientific research

    The project is divided into three milestones, which will be submitted at various points throughout the course to scaffold learning and ensure quality final
    submissions. These milestones will be submitted in Modules Three, Five, and Seven. The final product will be submitted in Module Nine.

    Prompt
    Research in social psychology has changed a great deal in the past 100 years. An examination of modern research, as opposed to classic research, shows
    differences with regard to the theoretical orientation (e.g., genetics, sociocultural approach, and social learning theory), ethics, and the basic versus applied
    nature of the research. There are also differences between the classic and current research with regard to its influence on social behavior.

    The task of this assignment is to select one classic research study in social psychology from a provided list. You will then locate a modern (within the last 10 years)
    peer-reviewed research study in the same subject area. The article you locate will be submitted for instructor approval. You will analyze these studies for their
    approach to social psychology, the influence of theories, research trends of the different time periods, the influence of the research on society, and how issues of
    ethics and ethical strategies differ across time.

    Specifically, the following critical elements must be addressed:

    I. Introduction: For this part of the assessment, you will:
    A. Briefly summarize the research question, results, and conclusions reached by the authors of each study you have chosen.
    B. Describe the social psychological approaches used in each of the chosen studies and justify why you believe that authors of the studies used

    these approaches.
    C. Analyze the studies for the theories and past research you believe were used by the authors of the studies that informed their approach.
    D. Analyze the approaches used by the authors in each of the chosen studies for how they do or do not demonstrate how the field of social

    psychology has changed over time. In other words, how are the approaches used by the authors in each of the chosen studies similar or
    different? How do they demonstrate how the field has or has not changed over the course of its history?

    II. Human Behavior: For this part of the assessment, you will analyze each of your chosen studies for how they might have influenced the development of
    human behavior in society.

    A. Explain how the research trends in social psychology in the different time periods of both studies may have informed the direction of the
    research. In other words, how did the research trends of the time influence the researchers in developing their study? Be sure to support your
    response with appropriate evidence.

    B. Assess how, once published and conveyed to the public, the results and conclusions reached by the researchers of the chosen studies may have
    influenced human behaviors.

    C. Assess how the chosen studies were or were not aligned with the established research trends of the time, and how that may have affected how
    they were received by the public. Be sure to support your response with appropriate evidence.

    III. Influence on Society: For this part of the assessment, you will evaluate the impact of the chosen studies in terms of how they have instigated social
    change and how they have benefited society. You should consider researching the historical context of the chosen study to support your responses.

    A. Analyze the chosen studies for elements of the research that you believe may have been a benefit to society at any point in time and be sure to
    justify your response.

    B. Analyze the chosen studies for elements of the research that you believe may have had a negative impact on society at any point in time and be
    sure to justify your response.

    C. Explain possible ways that the results or conclusions of the studies could be applied to everyday life in modern society.
    D. Evaluate the chosen studies for how they may have influenced events of social change (positively or negatively). Be sure to provide examples to

    support your response.
    E. Describe a personal or professional experience in which elements of social psychological research could be applied to help influence change.
    F. Explain how influential you believe social psychological research has been on changing behavior in society. If you believe it is not influential,

    explain why.

    IV. Ethical Considerations: For this part of the assessment, you will analyze each of the chosen studies for ethical issues that might be present, and examine
    how the time period may have influenced the ethical strategies of the researchers.

    A. Analyze each of the chosen studies for any potential ethical issues that may be present in their research design. If there are no potential ethical
    issues, explain why. Be sure to consider issues with research design as well as the impact of the experiment on the participants.

    B. Explain how well each of the studies follow the ethical guidelines of their respective time period and justify your response. In other words, how
    do the ethical guidelines of the time period of the study change, whether the studies should be considered ethical or unethical?

    C. Recommend ethically appropriate strategies that could be utilized by the studies in order to address identified ethical issues. In other words,
    what changes could be made to the studies in order to make them align with more modern ethical guidelines?

    Milestones
    Milestone One: Study Selections and Summaries
    In Module Three, you will submit your study selections and summaries, in which you will select a classic and modern research study for your final comparative
    analysis. This milestone will be graded with the Milestone One Rubric.

    Milestone Two: Similarities and Differences Chart
    In Module Five, you will submit your similarities and differences chart to help you begin to compare and contrast your selected classic and modern studies. Use
    the similarities and differences chart in the Milestone Two Learning Aid document to format your submission. This milestone will be graded with the Milestone
    Two Rubric.

    Milestone Three: Rough Draft
    In Module Seven, you will submit your rough draft of your final paper. This milestone will be graded with the Final Project Rubric.

    Final Submission: Research Study Comparative Analysis
    In Module Nine, you will submit your final project. It should be a complete, polished artifact containing all of the critical elements of the final product. It should
    reflect the incorporation of feedback gained throughout the course. This submission will be graded with the Final Project Rubric.

    Deliverables
    Milestone Deliverable Module Due Grading

    One Study Selection and Summary Three Graded separately; Milestone One Rubric

    Two Similarities and Differences Chart Five Graded separately; Milestone Two Rubric

    Three Rough Draft Seven Graded separately;

    Final Project Rubric

    Final Submission: Research Study
    Comparative Analysis

    Nine Graded separately; Final Project Rubric

    Final Project Rubric

    Guidelines for Submission: Your research study comparative analysis should adhere to the following formatting requirements: 8–10 pages in length, with 12-
    point Times New Roman font, one-inch margins, double spacing, and APA formatting and citations.

    Critical Elements Exemplary (100%) Proficient (90%) Needs Improvement (70%) Not Evident (0%) Value

    Introduction: Summary Meets “Proficient” criteria and
    summary demonstrates a
    nuanced understanding of the
    research question, results, and
    conclusions reached by the
    authors of each study chosen

    Briefly summarizes the research
    question, results, and conclusions
    reached by the authors of each
    study chosen

    Summarizes the research
    question, results, and conclusions
    reached by the authors of each
    study chosen, but summary is
    cursory or not brief

    Does not summarize the research
    question, results, and conclusions
    reached by the authors of each
    study chosen

    5

    Introduction:
    Approaches

    Meets “Proficient” criteria and
    description demonstrates how
    the approach used by researchers
    influences the research process

    Describes the social psychological
    approach used in each of the
    chosen studies and justifies why
    the authors used these
    approaches

    Describes the social psychological
    approach used in each of the
    chosen studies but description of
    the approach is cursory or
    inaccurate or does not justify
    response

    Does not describe the social
    psychological approach used in
    each of the chosen studies

    6

    Introduction: Theories
    and Past Research

    Meets “Proficient” criteria and
    analysis demonstrates keen
    insight into how theories and
    past research are used in the
    research process

    Analyzes the studies for the
    theories and past research used
    by the authors of the studies that
    informed their approach

    Analyzes the studies for the
    theories and past research used
    by the authors of the studies that
    informed their approach but
    analysis is cursory or inaccurate

    Does not analyze the studies for
    the theories and past research
    used by the authors of the
    studies that informed their
    approach

    6

    Introduction: Changed
    Over Time

    Meets “Proficient” criteria and
    analysis demonstrates a nuanced
    understanding of how the time
    period in which a study takes
    place influences the research
    process

    Analyzes the approaches used by
    the authors of the studies for
    how they do or do not
    demonstrate how the field of
    social psychology has changed
    over time

    Analyzes the approaches used by
    the authors of the studies for
    how they do or do not
    demonstrate how the field of
    social psychology has changed
    over time, but analysis is cursory
    or inaccurate

    Does not analyze the approaches
    used by the authors of the
    studies for how they do or do not
    demonstrate how the field of
    social psychology has changed
    over time

    6

    Human Behavior:
    Different Time Periods

    Meets “Proficient” criteria and
    explanation demonstrates a
    nuanced understanding of how
    the time period in which a study
    takes place influences the
    research process

    Explains how the research trends
    in social psychology in the
    different time periods of both
    studies may have informed the
    direction of the research and
    supports response using
    appropriate evidence

    Explains how the research trends
    in social psychology in the
    different time periods of both
    studies may have informed the
    direction of the research, but
    explanation is cursory or does
    not support response with
    evidence

    Does not explain how the
    research trends in social
    psychology in the different time
    periods of both studies may have
    informed the direction of the
    research

    6

    Human Behavior:
    Results and
    Conclusions

    Meets “Proficient” criteria and
    assessment demonstrates a
    nuanced understanding of the
    relationship between social
    psychological research and its
    influence on human behavior

    Assesses how the results and
    conclusions reached by the
    researchers of the chosen studies
    may have influenced human
    behavior

    Assesses how the results and
    conclusions reached by the
    researchers of the chosen studies
    may have influenced human
    behavior, but assessment is
    cursory or inaccurate

    Does not assess how the results
    and conclusions reached by the
    researchers of the chosen studies
    may have influenced human
    behavior

    6

    Human Behavior:
    Research Trends

    Meets “Proficient” criteria and
    assessment demonstrates a
    nuanced understanding of how
    the time period in which a study
    takes place influences how
    research is perceived

    Assesses how the research trends
    of the time may have influenced
    the impact of the chosen studies
    on society and supports response
    using appropriate evidence

    Assesses how the research trends
    of the time may have influenced
    the impact of the chosen studies
    on society, but assessment is
    cursory or does not support
    response with evidence

    Does not assess how the research
    trends of the time may have
    influenced the impact of the
    chosen studies on society

    6

    Influence on Society:
    Benefit Society

    Meets “Proficient” criteria and
    analysis demonstrates a keen
    insight of how social
    psychological research can
    influence social change

    Analyzes the chosen studies for
    elements in their results or
    conclusions reached that may
    benefit society and justifies
    response

    Analyzes the chosen studies for
    elements in their results or
    conclusions reached that may
    benefit society but analysis is
    cursory or inaccurate or does not
    justify response

    Does not analyze the chosen
    studies for elements in their
    results or conclusions reached
    that may benefit society

    6

    Influence on Society:
    Negative Impact

    Meets “Proficient” criteria and
    analysis demonstrates a keen
    insight of how social
    psychological research can
    influence social change

    Analyzes the chosen studies for
    elements in their results or
    conclusions reached that may
    have had a negative impact on
    society and justifies response

    Analyzes the chosen studies for
    elements in their results or
    conclusions reached that may
    have had a negative impact on
    society, but analysis is cursory or
    inaccurate or does not justify
    response

    Does not analyze the chosen
    studies for elements in their
    results or conclusions reached
    that may have had a negative
    impact on society

    6

    Influence on Society:
    Everyday Life

    Meets “Proficient” criteria and
    explanation demonstrates keen
    insight into how social
    psychological research can
    influence everyday life

    Explains possible ways that the
    results or conclusions of the
    studies could be applied to
    everyday life in society

    Explains possible ways that the
    results or conclusions of the
    studies could be applied to
    everyday life in society, but
    explanation is cursory or
    inaccurate

    Does not explain possible ways
    that the results or conclusions of
    the studies could be applied to
    everyday life in society

    6

    Influence on Society:
    Social Change

    Meets “Proficient” criteria and
    demonstrates a keen insight of
    how social psychological research
    can influence social change

    Evaluates the chosen studies for
    how they may have influenced
    events of social change
    (positively or negatively) and
    provides examples

    Evaluates the chosen studies for
    how they may have influenced
    events of social change
    (positively or negatively) and
    provides examples, but
    evaluation or provided examples
    are cursory or inaccurate

    Does not evaluate the chosen
    studies for how they may have
    influenced events of social
    change (positively or negatively)

    6

    Influence on Society:
    Personal or

    Professional Experience

    Meets “Proficient” criteria and
    explanation demonstrates keen
    insight into how social
    psychological research can
    influence everyday life

    Describes a personal or
    professional experience in which
    elements of social psychological
    research could be utilized to
    influence change

    Describes a personal or
    professional experience in which
    elements of social psychological
    research could be utilized to
    influence change, but description
    is cursory or inaccurate

    Does not describe a personal or
    professional experience in which
    elements of social psychological
    research could be utilized to
    influence change

    6

    Influence on Society:
    Influential

    Meets “Proficient” criteria and
    explanation demonstrates a
    nuanced understanding of how
    the time period in which a study
    takes place influences the
    research

    Explains how influential you
    believe social psychological
    research has been on changing
    behavior in society

    Explains how influential you
    believe social psychological
    research has been on changing
    behavior in society but
    explanation is cursory or
    inaccurate

    Does not explain how influential
    you believe social psychological
    research has been on changing
    behavior in society

    6

    Ethical Considerations:
    Ethical Issues

    Meets “Proficient” criteria and
    analysis demonstrates a nuanced
    understanding of the ethical
    issues common in different time
    periods in the field of psychology

    Analyzes each of the chosen
    studies for any potential ethical
    issues that may be present in
    their research design

    Analyzes each of the chosen
    studies for any potential ethical
    issues that may be present in
    their research design but analysis
    is cursory or inaccurate

    Does not analyze each of the
    chosen studies for any potential
    ethical issues that may be
    present in their research design

    6

    Ethical Considerations:
    Ethical Guidelines

    Meets “Proficient” criteria and
    explanation demonstrates a
    nuanced understanding of how
    the ethical guidelines of the time
    period of a study can inform how
    ethical a study is perceived

    Explains how well the studies
    follow the ethical guidelines of
    their respective time period and
    justifies response

    Explains how well the studies
    follow the ethical guidelines of
    their respective time period but
    explanation is cursory or
    inaccurate or does not justify
    response

    Does not explain how well the
    studies follow the ethical
    guidelines of their respective
    time period

    6

    Ethical Considerations:
    Ethically Appropriate

    Strategies

    Meets “Proficient” criteria and
    demonstrates keen insight into
    how to apply modern ethical
    guidelines to research both past
    and present

    Recommends ethically
    appropriate strategies that could
    be utilized by the studies in order
    to address identified ethical
    issues

    Recommends ethically
    appropriate strategies that could
    be utilized by the studies in order
    to address identified ethical
    issues but recommendations are
    cursory or inappropriate

    Does not recommend ethically
    appropriate strategies that could
    be utilized by the studies in order
    to address identified ethical
    issues

    6

    Articulation of
    Response

    Submission is free of errors
    related to citations, grammar,
    spelling, syntax, and organization
    and is presented in a professional
    and easy-to-read format

    Submission has no major errors
    related to citations, grammar,
    spelling, syntax, or organization

    Submission has major errors
    related to citations, grammar,
    spelling, syntax, or organization
    that negatively impact readability
    and articulation of main ideas

    Submission has critical errors
    related to citations, grammar,
    spelling, syntax, or organization
    that prevent understanding of
    ideas

    5

    Earned Total 100%

      PSY 530 Final Project Guidelines and Rubric

      Overview

      Prompt

      Milestones

      Milestone One: Study Selections and Summaries

      Milestone Two: Similarities and Differences Chart

      Milestone Three: Rough Draft

      Final Submission: Research Study Comparative Analysis

      Deliverables

      Final Project Rubric

    1

    5

    Articles Summary

    Student’s Name

    Institution Affiliation

    Course Name

    Professor’s Name

    Date

    Articles Summary

    Article 1- “Obedience to Authority: Stanley Milgram”

    Research Question/Hypothesis

    The research by Milgram (1965) got conducted to find out how the existence of authority imposes diverse behavioral outcomes on other persons. The research question aimed to determine if a person or authoritative figure called X tells Y to harm another person Z, there would be a condition influencing Y to perform the action.

    The main research question was:

    “If an experimenter tells a subject to hurt another person, under what conditions will the subject go along with this instruction, and under what conditions will he refuse to obey.”

    Literature Review

    The author explained how people usually undergo mental pressures to adhere to diverse instructions, which become mandatory for them to engage with. Different circumstances usually force people to adhere to authoritative figures even though they might hold personal opinions about their actions.

    Methodology

    The methodology was observational since the author explained how different scenarios of an experiment done at Yale University were applicable in ascertaining how authority is used to generate social changes. The experiment illustrated how some participants refused to answer questions on whether they would perform inappropriate actions if certain authorities forced them.

    Results

    Milgram (1965) illustrated how human beings can get affected by different circumstances that affect their capability to obey different types of decisions. The method used to develop decision-making often gets affected by the behaviors that human beings involve in their reaction to various extremities in life.

    Conclusion

    Human beings perform actions in conformity to the type of authoritative figure handling their directions. People can perform duties based on logical requirements, family duties, or impact on their conscience. As long as people have sensitive reactions to different actions, the resultant outcome shall be a change in the method of obeying authority.

    Article 2: “Authority as epistemic capital”

    Research Question/Hypothesis

    The study got developed based on the hypothesis that authority is a concept that appeals to different persons thinking processes to produce behaviors.

    Literature Review

    According to Alasuutari (2018), authority produces a hierarchical perception of power that different people are expected to conform to. Social activities get performed due to power since it influences a struggle for improving the concept getting studied. The author explained that persuasion of power often gets performed using authoritative text that can be religious text or the law. Investment in authority can get performed due to adhering to power structures needed to promote the credibility of the behaviors people display.

    Methodology

    The article performed document analysis on different articles and then synthesized all their data to explain the full impact of authority in handling the behavioral actions of different persons.

    Results

    Authority is a concept that imposes a force on different persons since it changes how they think. It is possible to generate credibility for the types of behaviors people display when they are aware of authority. Then they must conform to principles that manage their views on various activities. Influence on the type of conduct people display is a deciding factor developed using authority. People who generate authority often dictate how other persons in society behave.

    Conclusion

    Authority can get established using institutions, family, work, or normative social patterns. People get required to conform to behavioral patterns which influence how they think in connection to determining how they can establish rules for promoting social growth. Realistic options are actions that get standardized depending on how people develop a legitimate view of how to behave. A credible authority analysis was developed using a holistic view of how to generate social changes depending on the behaviors people produce when they realize the existence of an authoritative figure which can be a person or text.

    References

    Alasuutari, P. (2018). Authority as epistemic capital.
    Journal of Political Power,
    11(2), 165-190. DOI:10.1080/2158379x.2018.1468151.

    Milgram, S. (1965). Some conditions of obedience and disobedience to authority.
    Human Relations, 18(1), 57–76.

    1

    PSY 530 Final Project

    Student’s Name

    Institutional Affiliation

    Course Details

    Instructor’s Name

    Date

    PSY 530 Final Project

    Milgram (1965) and Alasuutari (2018) are the classic and modern studies chosen for the assignment. The researchers sought to determine how authorities influence the behavior of different individuals. In the classic research, the study question sought to establish how authorities influence behavioral outcomes in individuals. The modern study purposed to establish how authorities appeal to different people’s thinking processes to generate human behavior. Classic research found that people perform actions according to how authority wants them to. Modern research concluded that people in authority force changes in human behavior by influencing their thinking patterns. The studies used a social cognitive approach because those in authority modified the subjects’ behaviors. The social cognitive theory believes that other people’s actions and environmental factors can greatly determine human behavior. The classic study author used relevant references from other studies, while in the modern article, the author used his past works to reference the article. Milgram (1965), the modern article, was published 50 years ago, while Alasuutari (2018) was published within five years. The articles demonstrate a significant change in psychology over time. For instance, many people have studied the area, and many articles make it easy to use document analysis, as in the case of modern study, unlike the classic one, which used observational methodology. Additionally, in the early days, there were many ethical problems during research due to the need for proper laws on research ethics. 

    Human Behavior

               At different times, the studies provided critical research directions. For instance, according to the classic study, people made their decisions as per the current authority figures, which directed the research to establish the role of authority in modeling human behavior. In modern studies, authorities force changes in how people behave and make daily decisions. In modern times, the conditioning approach guides the research on human behavior, where various incentives force people to behave in a certain manner. Once published, the studies influenced social policies and informed psychological programs for behavior change in different areas, such as corrective agencies. The classic study had some ethical problems, which could affect readers’ perception of the study findings compared to modern research, which complied with ethical research guidelines. 

    Influence on Society

    The chosen articles had a significant positive impact on society. In classic research, the authorities can influence good societal behaviors, including instilling compliance with disease-preventive practices by giving the right directions. In modern times, different interventions can be applied to motivate people to adopt the right ways and avoid unnecessary risks. However, the studies affected society negatively as they gave power to authorities to take away people’s autonomy in decision-making and could easily shape their people despite consideration of morality. In the modern article, authority influences people’s ways of thinking and how they make daily decisions. According to classic research, individuals make daily decisions as the authorities would like, limiting their autonomy to do what they feel is good. The findings of these studies changed society and how we people see it at both personal and group levels. For instance, people would make decisions within the scope defined by the authority of the day. This is good for policy implementation and the adoption of good practices. 

    Ethical Considerations

               The classic research had some ethical concerns as where participants underwent mental pressures in the process of complying with instructions given by the authority figures. The modern study had no ethical problems due to the existing legal framework requiring strict compliance with research ethical principles and approval by the relevant authority, like the institutional review board (IRB), before conducting the research. This ensures the study conforms with all the necessary guidelines to guarantee the safety of the study participants. In the old days, there was no well-established research ethical framework to guarantee their safety and confidentiality. Today, studies must seek approval from the institutional review board (IRB), which sets out particular requirements. The researchers should first seek informed consent from the participants and give details on what are the study goals, expectations, and risks (West, 2020). Participation should be voluntary, and subjects can discontinue their participation voluntarily. Finally, the research methodology should comply with beneficence, autonomy, justice, and non-maleficence principles. 

    References

    Alasuutari, P. (2018). Authority as epistemic capital. Journal of Political Power, 11(2), 165–190.

    https://doi.org/10.1080/2158379x.2018.1468151

    Milgram, S. (1965). Some conditions of obedience and disobedience to authority. Human Relations, 18(1), 57–76.

    https://doi.org/10.1177/001872676501800105

    West, E. (2020). Ethics and integrity in nursing research. 
    Handbook of research ethics and scientific integrity, 1051-1069.

    https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007/978-3-030-16759-2_46

    PSY 530 Final Project Milestone Two: Similarities and Differences Table
    Learning Aid

    Your Classic Study: Obedience to Authority: Stanley Milgram ___________________________________________________________________

    Your More Recent Study: Authority as epistemic capital ______________________________________________________________

    Classic and Modern Study Questions

    Responses for Classic Study

    Responses for Modern Study

    Similarities and Differences Between Your Two Responses

    Citation for studies in APA style

    Milgram, S. (1965). Some conditions of obedience and disobedience to authority.
    Human Relations,
    18(1), 57–76.
    https://doi.org/10.1177/001872676501800105

    Alasuutari, P. (2018). Authority as epistemic capital.
    Journal of Political Power,
    11(2), 165–190.
    https://doi.org/10.1080/2158379x.2018.1468151

    Article by Milgram published over fifty years ago while article by Alasuutari published within the last five years

    What is the research question or hypothesis in this study?

    “If an experimenter tells a subject to hurt another person, under what conditions will the subject go along with this instruction, and under what conditions will he refuse to obey.”

    How does authority as a concept appeal to different persons thinking processes to produce behaviors?

    Both research were meant to determine how authority affects behavior of different persons. Whereas classic study was to determine how authority imposes behavioral outcomes to persons modern study aimed to determine how authority appeals to different persons in thinking process to produce behaviors.

    Name two studies referenced in this article that contributed to the main theme of this article.

    Buss, ARNOLD H. (1961). 
    The psychology of aggression. New York and London: John Wiley

    KIERKEGAARD, S. (1843). 
    Fear and trembling. English edition, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1941

    Alasuutari, P., 2016. The synchronization of national policies: ethnography of the global tribe of moderns. London: Routledge

    Alasuutari, P. and Qadir, A., 2014. Epistemic governance: an approach to the politics of policymaking. European Journal of Cultural and Political Sociology, 1, 67–84. doi:10.1080/23254823.2014.887986

    The difference is that the author of the classic article used references from other studies while the author of the modern article used some of the sources, he had published himself in the past

    What type of research method was used in this study? Correlation? Experiment?

    The methodology was observational since the author explained how different scenarios of an experiment done at Yale University were applicable in ascertaining how authority is used to generate social changes.

    Document analysis

    The classical article used observational research method while the modern article used observation

    Were the measures used in your study reliable and valid? Explain.

    Yes. The author explains how different scenarios of an experiment done at Yale university were applicable in ascertaining how authority used to generate social change

    Yes. The author synthesized data from different articles.

    In classic study the author used different scenarios of an experiment done at Yale University to ascertain how authority generated social change while the author in modern study used different document analysis to explain the impact of authority in handling behavioral actions of different persons.

    What were the main results/conclusions in this study?

    Human beings performed actions in conformity to the type of authoritative figure handling their directions. People can perform duties based on logical requirements, family duties, or impact in their conscience.

    Authority imposes force on different persons since it changes how they think

    In classical study, human beings performed actions in conformity to the authority handling them while in modern study authority forced change to persons as it changed how they think.

    Did this study have ethical problems? If so, name them.

    Yes. The author explained how people usually undergo mental pressures to adhere to diverse instruction, which becomes mandatory for them to engage with.

    No

    While classic study has ethical problems where people undergo mental pressures in complying to instructions in modern study there is no such ethical problems.

    How does this research help improve people’s social well-being/social welfare?

    In classic study human beings perform their actions in compliance to the authority and based on their directions.

    In modern study the authority imposes force to the people which affects their daily lives.

    In classic study human beings make their decision in line with the current authority

    Whereas in modern study authority imposes force on different person and changes the way they make their daily decisions.

    What influence did this study have on the everyday lives of people in society?

    People in the society started making decisions based on the current authority and on their directions.

    The authority-imposed force to change on the way people thought and make decisions

    In modern study the authority affected the way people were thinking and making daily decisions while classic study individual make their daily decisions in accordance with the authority.

    How has this study changed the way you view the world? Did this study affect you personally?

    The study has changed my view to the world. For instance, in the older days, individuals made decisions which were within the authority of the day.

    The study has changed my view on the world because I have discovered that sometimes people make decisions based on the existing authority.

    The difference in the two articles is that the way authority influenced decision-making the past decades is not the same way they influence decisions presently.

    Notes and Further Discussion:

    Authority is a concept that imposes a force on different persons since it changes how they think. It is possible to generate credibility for the types of behaviors people display when they are aware of authority. Then they must conform to principles that manage their views on various activities. Influence on the type of conduct people display is a deciding factor developed using authority. People who generate authority often dictate how other persons in society behave.

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