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Week 2 Assignment

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Assignment Content

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Choose two different conditions discussed in your book, PowerPoint presentation, or discussion. Write a 175 word abstract per condition on that disease covering the basics of pathogenesis and prognosis, as well as how they will affect you as a funeral director and embalmer. This needs to be done in APA format. Make sure to include a bibliography and cite all of your sources. Wikipedia and WebMD are not an acceptable sources.  

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Week 2 – Regressive Tissue Changes

Discussion Topic

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Choose a topic from the chapters on cellular reactions and find an outside source to share. It may be an article, video, diagram, etc. Be sure share what you found informative about the source you chose, as well as how it relates to the content we are reviewing this week.

 

I do not want everyone to use the same source, so be sure to get your original forum posted as soon as possible to ensure it is not taken by another student. When you respond, be sure to state what you found most interesting about the source provided. 

Michael’s post:

For this week’s discussion forum, I have chosen to write about silicosis. Silicosis is a form of pneumoconiosis caused by stone dust. The word silicosis comes from the word silicon, and usually affects those who work in quarries and or around sand or stone dust. When silica dust enters the lungs, it can cause inflammation that can and will lead to scar tissue and damage to your lungs over time. The volume of particles and the duration of the exposure impact how much damage is done.  

Silicosis is a progressive disease that normally takes between 10-30 years to develop, after first exposure. As time passes a person afflicted by silicosis will slowly but surely begin to lose lung capacity, and very likely over time will need to use oxygen to help them breathe, this is even more likely if they have Progressive Massive Fibrosis (PMF). PMF is a severe form of fibrosis, it causes far worse scarring and damage to the lungs and can lead to greater susceptibility to tuberculosis, lung cancer, and chronic bronchitis.  

Silicosis does not have a specific test; to get a diagnosis, it takes multiple tests to be able to confirm the suspicion with a diagnosis. There is no cure for silicosis, and the damage done cannot be reversed. Any treatment for silicosis focus on slowing the progression of the disease and relieving the symptoms. One would need to change their habits if needed and avoid inhalation of more silica particles. 

I used to work for a company called Howmet Aerospace. They took chest x-rays when we were hired and did health checks on us every year. This is one of many things they were openly trying to protect us from, it was a constant concern. 

I have included a link to a video that was informative to those who do not have a firm understanding of silicosis. I think that it was a valuable resource for prevention and hopefully, will make others think about the exposure that they are at risk for in their workplace. I also think that it is important to show people the risks and thought it was good that they mentioned access to support groups, as well. 

Silicosis video by the American Lung Association

 

References: 

American Lung Association. (n.d.). Silicosis. https://www.lung.org/lung-health-diseases/lung-disease-lookup/silicosis 

Christy’s post:

Cardiac hypertrophy is a condition that the heart muscle increases in thickness. This makes the heart’s four chambers smaller, which in turn causes a decrease in the amount of blood the heart pumps. Hypertension and heart valve stenosis are the cause of this particular disease. The video shares how the heart struggles with regular operations. It also breaks down contributing factors that may eventually lead to congestive heart failure. I just included part one. 

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Cellular

Reaction

To Injury

Regressive tissue changes
– pathological processes indicating disturbances in cell metabolism
There are many different types of regressive tissue changes that we will discuss. Each type will be designated with a capital letter. There will then be a discussion of the variations of each one following.
A. Degeneration
– the deterioration of tissues with the corresponding functional impairment that is due to disease or injury

Cloudy Swelling
– the most common and least damaging of the degenerations
– increased water content in the affected cells causes enlargement
– this excess water causes the cytoplasm to be turbid (cloudy)

2. Fatty degeneration/Fatty change
– a degenerative condition in which there is an abnormal accumulation or distribution of visible fat in the cells
– triglycerides that are the result of the digestion of fats

3. Amyloid degeneration
– caused by the presence of a waxy, starch-like substance called amyloid
– a complex protein formed due to a metabolic disorder (Alzheimer’s)

B. Infiltration
– the process of seepage or diffusion into a tissue of substances not ordinarily present
– the circulatory system is the vehicle
1. Fatty Infiltration
– the abnormal deposition of fat within cells
– must have fatty infiltration to get fatty degeneration
– fat has been brought by the blood

2. Pigmentation
– discoloring of tissue due to deposition of or lack of coloring matter (pigments)
Endogenous
– an increase or irregularity in distribution of pigments normally within the body
Examples:
Melanin – freckles (ephelis)
Bilirubin – yellow (jaundice)
Hemoglobin – red (erythema)

b. Exogenous
– deposition of pigments from outside the body
– Carotene containing food
– Carotenemia – yellow color (sometimes mistaken for jaundice)
– large amounts of carbon pigment in lungs – (coal dust)
– Anthracosis (Black lung disease)
– enter through the portals of entry for respiration, ingestion and absorption

3. Calcification
– a process in which organic tissue becomes hardened by the deposition of lime salts in the tissues

4. Gout
– the condition which occurs because of the deposition of uric acid crytals in and around the joints, primarily great toe

NECROSIS

C. Necrosis-
– pathological death of cells, tissues, or organs while yet a part of the living body
– must include the degeneration of these cells to be considered necrosis

C. Necrosis
Causes
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Trauma
Vessel Blockage
Extreme heat or cold
Chemical or bacterial poisoning
Loss of nerve supply

1. Gangrene
– death of tissue due to a deficiency or absence of blood supply
3 Types:
a. Gas Gangrene
– caused by Clostridium perfringens
– tissue gas in dead host
– gas gangrene in living host
– a form of necrosis combined with putrefaction

b. Dry Gangrene or Ischemic Necrosis
– the results of an interference in the arterial supply of a part of the body
BACTERIA PLAYS NO PART
– occurs often in cases of diabetes mellitus
– there is NO invasion by saprophytes

c. Moist Gangrene
– putrefactive bacteria are present
– (saprophytic bacteria)
– necrotic tissue that is wet as a result of inadequate venous drainage
– part is cold, swollen, pulse absent, skin is moist, black, and under tension
– liquefaction occurs and foul odor is present

spread is rapid
– usually fatal if not treated
– Ex.
– Decubitus Ulcer (bed sore)

2. Caseous Necrosis
or Caseation Necrosis
– seen in tissues infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis
a yellow, cheese-like material
the fat in the affected organ’s outer structure (capsule) causes the infected tissues to be converted into.
May be friable (crumbles like cheese)

D. Atrophy
– a wasting or decrease in size of an organ or tissue due to a decrease in size or number of cells
2 types:

1. Physiological atrophy
– part of the normal developmental process
– Ex. – mammary glands after lactation, tonsils, spleen, lymphoid tissue after mid-life

2. Pathological atrophy
– caused atrophy
– an abnormal occurrence
– causes of pathological atrophy are inadequate nutrition, disuse, pressure, loss of nerve supply, lack of endocrine supply

E. Hypertrophy
– the increase in size of an organ or tissue due to an increase in size of the component cells
1. Physiological
– due to natural rather than pathological factors
Ex. – uterus during pregnancy
3 types:

2. Pathological
– adaptive results from abnormal obstruction of hollow organs or from damage to some of the cells in the affected tissue
Ex. – heart chamber due to disease, urinary bladder due to blockage

3. Compensatory
– accommodates increased functional demand on tissue after tissue of the same type has been lost or has died
– occurs in paired organs like the lungs & kidneys

F. Hyperplasia
– an increase in size of an organ or part due to an increase in the number of cells
– may be due to inflammation or increased functional demand over a long period
– ie. goiter

G. Metaplasia
– ie. – smokers exhibit this in the lungs
– the replacement of one type of normal tissue by another type of normal tissue in an area of the body where the second tissue doesn’t normally occur

H. Physiological Regeneration or Replacement
– the restoration of destroyed or necrotic cells with normal cells of the same type
I. Pathological Regeneration or Repair
– the restoration of destroyed or necrotic cells with fibrous connective tissue forming a scar or cicatrix

STRUCTURAL
ABNORMALITIES

Malformation or Anomaly
– a deformity
– any abnormal position, shape or structure of a body part
– any deviation from normal

A. Spina Bifida
– a congenital defect in the walls of the spinal canal in which part of the vertebral column is absent or there is incomplete closure

B. Cleft Palate
– a congenital fissure in the palate forming a communicating passageway between the oral and nasal cavities

C. Aplasia
– failure of a tissue or an organ to develop normally
1. Amelia
– the congenital absence of one or more limbs
Examples

2. Hypoplasia
– the condition of an organ or tissue being smaller than normal from birth
– the underdevelopment of an organ or part

3. Phocomelia
– the absence or poor develop-
ment of the proximal portions of the extremities

D. Situs Inversus
– some or all of the organs of the body are on the side opposite of that on which they normally belong

E. Polydactylism
– the state of having more than the normal number of fingers and toes

F. Color Blindness
– a defect or absence of the perception of colors
G. Vascular Nevus
– a mole or birthmark in which the superficial blood vessels are enlarged

H. Down’s Syndrome (Trisomy 21)
– a variety of moderate to severe mental retardations caused by the presence of an extra chromosome
I. Hernia
– protrusion or projection of an organ or a part of an organ through the wall of the cavity which normally contains it

EXAM
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Discussion Topic

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During Week One we did a review of basic chemistry. This week we will start the journey into organic chemistry. 

My question for you to respond to this week is ”
How often do you think you encounter organic chemistry in your everyday lives?” 

Before reading or researching, type a response to this question based on your “gut feeling”. Then read the chapter and do 10-15 minutes of internet sleuthing on organic chemistry/compounds. Did it reinforce your initial response? Were you surprised by what you found? 

A discussion rubric is available for viewing but the grading for all discussions in this course will be as follows: 

Total of 10 points. 

2 points come from posting a response by the weekly deadline. 

6 points come from your initial response. 

2 points come from posting 2 responses to other students posts. 
You will not be able to see other discussions until you post your discussion. 

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PAYTON’S POST:

We encounter organic chemistry every day. When we interact with anything living we are interacting with organic chemistry. This is not only limited to our idea of “living” which is most of the time associated with consciousness. Organic chemistry is anything that contains carbon compounds. This opens my eyes to the world around me. The way that trees reproduce, grow and respond to their environment shows me that they are living as well. Not to get all tree hugger (not that it’s a bad thing) but I don’t think people think about trees being living beings since there is that lack of consciousness. This can be argued- since the definition of consciousness is “to be awake and aware of one’s surroundings.” That’s a discussion on another subject. Doing research on everyday interaction with organic chemistry only solidifies my answer to this post. 

SHEMINN’S POST:

I can honestly say I really think about how organic chemistry is encountered in my everyday life, but if I think about the things that I may use daily then they would in a way connect with organic chemistry. A few things would be the soaps that are used in my house, like the hand soap, dishwashing soap, laundry detergent. These are products that could relate to organic chemistry. There is also perfume or even the types of plastic good products that are used by myself and family.

After reading the chapter and doing a little internet searching on organic chemistry and how it is used in our everyday lives, I was happy to know that I was on the right track of what thought organic chemistry was being used in my household daily. Organic chemistry seems to be in everything, for example candles, cosmetics and nail polish. Learning that most compounds containing both carbon and hydrogen are organic compounds, and that just about all compounds that is obtained from plants or animals is organic. I liked that one article mentioned that the best way to identify if something is organic the best question to ask yourself is ” did it come from a plant of an animal”? That seems simple enough to help anyone identify whether something is organic or inorganic.

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