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One chronic condition that nutrition plays a critical role in is Type II Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). While it is preventable in some cases, the most essential factor in prevention is up-keeping a diet that does not deplete and over-stimulate the body’s insulin secretion and storage. If an inappropriate amount of insulin is prolonged due to high glucose levels in the blood it may cause insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is when the body’s cells don’t respond normally to insulin. Glucose can’t enter the cells as easily, so it builds up in the blood. This can eventually lead to Type II Diabetes. As a nurse practitioner I will educate the patients on the information provided above as well as guidelines on how to utilize nutrition to combat and prevent T2DM based on scientific evidence. “Reduce energy intake in all individuals with overweight/obesity (calorie deficit of 250–500 kcal/day) to promote weight loss (0.5–1.0 kg/week) to a final body weight within the normal range. Prefer low glycaemic index foods (whole grains, fruits, legumes, green salad with olive oil dressing and


most vegetables). Limit refined carbohydrates (pasta, white bread, rice, white potatoes, etc.). Limit intake of sucrose-containing foods and sugary drinks. Prefer non-nutritive sweeteners as substitutes of sugar. Low calorie or unsweetened beverages should be preferred, but their consumption limited” (Petroni, et al., 2021). In addition I would add that protein intake should be within 1-1.5 x the goal body weight, as well as encouraging the reduction of sodium, alcohol, and smoking. Research also suggests that adhering to a Mediterranean diet is optimal for those who want to prevent or are at risk for T2DM. Setting attainable goals for patients would be the primary initiative for me as a nurse practitioner as preventing a problem is the goal not restricting them as that can have the opposite effect on patients. Utilizing lab values would be my next step in evaluating the patient when they come for their follow up visits or annual checkups. From there the current plan could be modified based off findings and patient attitudes towards accomplishing their health goal. 


An objective of Health People 2030-Reduce the proportion of children and adolescents with obesity 

       Many chronic diseases are preventable and manageable, yet obesity in children continues to rise. Lifestyle modifications and adjustments have been proven to decrease high blood pressure, glucose index, and cholesterol levels of many (Clark & Brancati, 2000). According to the journal of Global Pediatric Health, “In the past 3 decades, the prevalence of childhood obesity has more than doubled in children and tripled in adolescents” (Sanyaolu et al., 2019). These numbers are alarming as an increased number of children and adolescents find themselves participating in less physical activity and consuming foods with high caloric intake.


       It is important as APRN’s to educate our patients about diet and the importance of exercise. However, it is also important to evaluate the risk factors associated with obesity. As APRN’s we must be aware of physiological and psychological factors that might be contributing to obesity. In addition, as an APRN it is important to guide our patients and provide them with community resources that promote healthy lifestyles. On the other hand, The Center for Disease and Prevention for example, during the month of September, highlights important health issues and addresses Childhood Obesity, Food Safety and Education, Healthy Aging, and Recovery Awareness. 

        Therefore, implementing primary and secondary prevention methods, such as nutritional school programs, nutrition and education classes, physical activity programs, and importantly parental support, improves and  childhood obesity. Primary and secondary interventions lead the way in preventing the worsening of childhood obesity and its prevalence. 



Comorbidities and potential health consequences of childhood obesity (Lakshman et al., 2012). 


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