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Question 1

4.7 Points

Which of the following statements is true about personality theories?

1.

They are former principles that have been proven true.

2.

They are useful tools of science to the extent that they are value free.

3.

They should not be open to falsification.

4.

They originate from the historical, social, and psychological world of their originators.

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Question 2

4.7 Points

The ultimate goal of Jungian dream interpretation is to:

1.

uncover hidden sexual urges.

2.

facilitate self-realization.

3.

conquer unconscious fears.

4.

enhance the persona.

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Question 3

4.7 Points

Firstborn children, according to Alfred Adler, are likely to:

1.

suffer from organ inferiorities.

2.

communicate in organ dialect more than second born children do.

3.

have very little anxiety.

4.

have intensified feelings of power and superiority.

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Question 4

4.7 Points

Alfred Adler believed that the typical second born child:

1.

develops moderate competitiveness.

2.

develops extreme feelings of vengeance toward younger siblings.

3.

is fearful of authority.

4.

becomes easily discouraged.

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Question 5

4.7 Points

Alfred Adler believed that behavior and personality are shaped by:

1.

organ inferiorities.

2.

subjective perceptions.

3.

sexual and aggressive impulses.

4.

early childhood experiences.

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Question 6

4.7 Points

To Carl Jung, the two basic attitudes are:

1.

thinking and feeling.

2.

introversion and extraversion.

3.

sensing and intuiting.

4.

conscious and unconscious.

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Question 7

4.7 Points

Carl Jung defined the term “instinct” as:

1.

an unconscious physical impulse toward action.

2.

an irrational function that involves perception of elementary data that are beyond an individual’s awareness.

3.

the ability to fuse one’s identity with that of another person without a fear of losing it.

4.

a feeling of uneasiness with an unknown cause.

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Question 8

4.7 Points

Asking a patient to verbalize thoughts, no matter how absurd, irrelevant, or embarrassing, is the Freudian technique of:

1.

condensation.

2.

displacement.

3.

dream analysis.

4.

free association.

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Question 9

4.7 Points

According to Freud, the ego is:

1.

partly conscious, partly preconscious, and partly unconscious.

2.

preconscious only.

3.

conscious only.

4.

unconscious only.

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Question 10

4.7 Points

Which of the following terms is used to describe a therapist’s feelings toward a patient during the course of treatment?

1.

Causality

2.

Countertransference

3.

Progression

4.

Individuation

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Question 11

4.7 Points

The major difficulty facing youth is to overcome the natural tendency to cling to the narrow consciousness of childhood, thus avoiding problems pertinent to the present time of life. This desire to live in the past is called:

1.

the vicarious experience.

2.

the cardinal disposition.

3.

individuation.

4.

the conservative principle.

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Question 12

4.7 Points

Which of the following statements is true of both instincts and archetypes?

1.

They themselves can be directly represented.

2.

They are consciously determined.

3.

They lack a biological basis.

4.

They can help shape personality.

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Question 13

4.7 Points

The first test of one’s courage, according to Carl Jung, is to:

1.

submit one’s self to the ego.

2.

recognize the animus.

3.

recognize one’s inheritance.

4.

know one’s shadow.

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Question 14

4.7 Points

According to Freud, a boy who feels strong hostility toward his father and sexual love for his mother is experiencing:

1.

the complete Oedipus complex.

2.

the castration complex.

3.

moral masochism.

4.

the simple male Oedipus complex.

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Question 15

4.7 Points

According to Sigmund Freud, which of the following statements is true about the superego?

1.

It is the executive branch of personality.

2.

It is rational.

3.

It strives for pleasure.

4.

It strives for perfection.

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Question 16

4.7 Points

According to Sigmund Freud, which of the following is an important function of repression?

1.

To protect a person against the pain of anxiety

2.

To protect a person against public disgrace

3.

To convert superego functions into ego functions

4.

To convert id functions into ego functions

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Question 17

4.7 Points

Freud’s three levels of mental life are:

1.

the unconscious, the preconscious, and the conscious.

2.

the id, the ego, and the superego.

3.

aim, object, and impetus.

4.

Thanatos, Eros, and the Oedipus complex.

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Question 18

4.7 Points

Freud held that the pain of anxiety is most likely to result in:

1.

psychotic behavior.

2.

realistic behavior.

3.

defensive behavior.

4.

neurotic behavior.

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Question 19

4.7 Points

According to Alfred Adler, _____ is the “barometer of normality.”

1.

creative power

2.

subjectivity of perception

3.

social interest

4.

fictional finalism

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Question 20

4.7 Points

According to Alfred Adler, which of the following statements is true about dreams?

1.

They are prophetic.

2.

They are expressions of infantile wishes.

3.

They can be easily understood by the dreamer.

4.

They can provide clues to solve future problems.

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Question 21

4.7 Points

Alfred Adler’s break with Sigmund Freud was due to the fact that:

1.

Alfred Adler was extremely deferent to Sigmund Freud.

2.

Sigmund Freud lacked organizational skills, leaving Alfred Adler with the responsibility of directing the Wednesday Psychological Society.

3.

Sigmund Freud believed that psychoanalysis should change to keep up with society.

4.

Alfred Adler could not accept Sigmund Freud’s strong emphasis on sexual factors as motivators of behavior.

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Question 22

4.7 Points

According to Alfred Adler, _____ is the dynamic force motivating all human activity.

1.

inferior physical endowment

2.

a feeling of superiority

3.

the striving for success

4.

organ dialect

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Question 23

4.7 Points

According to Carl Jung, the confession of a pathogenic secret in psychotherapy involves:

1.

a social interest.

2.

a stage of transformation.

3.

the cathartic method.

4.

the psychoanalytic approach.

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Question 24

4.7 Points

Alfred Adler believed that there are two general routes by which people strive. One is the path of exaggerated personal superiority and the other is the road of:

1.

masculine protest.

2.

social interest.

3.

individuation.

4.

power.

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Question 25

4.7 Points

In Freudian theory, dreams are seen as:

1.

wish fulfillments.

2.

expressions of humans’ phylogenetic endowment.

3.

being prophetic in nature.

4.

having importance primarily on the manifest level.

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Question 26

4.7 Points

Alfred Adler felt that every individual is striving to reach the same goal of:

1.

amassing material wealth.

2.

a perfect self-consciousness.

3.

reduction of anxiety.

4.

superiority or success.

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Question 27

4.7 Points

Which of the following is a Freudian term for a person who is characterized by compulsive neatness, stubbornness, and miserliness?

1.

Receptive character

2.

Hoarding character

3.

Anal character

4.

Exploitative character

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Question 28

4.7 Points

Alfred Adler’s concept of humanity is most accurately summarized in which phrase?

1.

People’s experiences are more important than their interpretations of experience.

2.

Childhood experiences determine adult personality.

3.

People are motivated by their goals for the future.

4.

Genetic factors are more influential than social factors in shaping personality.

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Question 29

4.7 Points

Freud believed that the id:

1.

is the executive branch of personality.

2.

serves the reality principle.

3.

serves the moral or idealistic principle.

4.

constantly seeks to increase pleasure and reduce tension.

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Question 30

4.7 Points

Carl Jung called the feminine side of males the:

1.

animus.

2.

anima.

3.

shadow.

4.

persona.

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